3 In the course of time, Cain brought an offering to Hashem from the fruit of the soil;
6 And Hashem said to Cain, “Why are you distressed, And why is your face fallen?
ו וַיֹּאמֶר יְהֹוָה אֶל־קָיִן לָמָּה חָרָה לָךְ וְלָמָּה נָפְלוּ פָנֶיךָ׃
7 Surely, if you do right, There is uplift. But if you do not do right Sin couches at the door; Its urge is toward you, Yet you can be its master.”
ז הֲלוֹא אִם־תֵּיטִיב שְׂאֵת וְאִם לֹא תֵיטִיב לַפֶּתַח חַטָּאת רֹבֵץ וְאֵלֶיךָ תְּשׁוּקָתוֹ וְאַתָּה תִּמְשָׁל־בּוֹ׃
10 Then He said, “What have you done? Hark, your brother’s blood cries out to Me from the ground!
י וַיֹּאמֶר מֶה עָשִׂיתָ קוֹל דְּמֵי אָחִיךָ צֹעֲקִים אֵלַי מִן־הָאֲדָמָה׃
11 Therefore, you shall be more cursed than the ground, which opened its mouth to receive your brother’s blood from your hand.
יא וְעַתָּה אָרוּר אָתָּה מִן־הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר פָּצְתָה אֶת־פִּיהָ לָקַחַת אֶת־דְּמֵי אָחִיךָ מִיָּדֶךָ׃
12 If you till the soil, it shall no longer yield its strength to you. You shall become a ceaseless wanderer on earth.”
KEE ta-a-VOD et HA-a-da-MAH lo to-SAYF tayt ko-KHAH LAKH NA va-NAD tih-YEH va-A-retz
יב כִּי תַעֲבֹד אֶת־הָאֲדָמָה לֹא־תֹסֵף תֵּת־כֹּחָהּ לָךְ נָע וָנָד תִּהְיֶה בָאָרֶץ׃
4:12 You shall become a ceaseless wanderer on earth
The Hebrew for ‘ceaseless wanderer’ in this verse is na v’nad (נע ונד). Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch distinguishes the word na (נע) from nad (נד). Na refers to a wanderer who can find no physical resting place on Earth, whereas a nad is a wanderer whose connection to mankind has been severed. Cain’s punishment isolated him from the land as well as from all of mankind; he was cursed with an inability to find a homeland or a society, and subsequently his sin was too much to bear. The privilege of living in a homeland among a society of people who share a common lineage is no small matter. The return of Jewish sovereignty to its biblical homeland in our time, after thousands of years of exile, is truly a mark of God’s hand in this world.2 comments
13 Cain said to Hashem, “My punishment is too great to bear!
יג וַיֹּאמֶר קַיִן אֶל־יְהֹוָה גָּדוֹל עֲוׁנִי מִנְּשֹׂא׃
14 Since You have banished me this day from the soil, and I must avoid Your presence and become a restless wanderer on earth—anyone who meets me may kill me!”
יד הֵן גֵּרַשְׁתָּ אֹתִי הַיּוֹם מֵעַל פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה וּמִפָּנֶיךָ אֶסָּתֵר וְהָיִיתִי נָע וָנָד בָּאָרֶץ וְהָיָה כָל־מֹצְאִי יַהַרְגֵנִי׃
16 Cain left the presence of Hashem and settled in the land of Nod, east of Eden.
טז וַיֵּצֵא קַיִן מִלִּפְנֵי יְהֹוָה וַיֵּשֶׁב בְּאֶרֶץ־נוֹד קִדְמַת־עֵדֶן׃
17 Cain knew his wife, and she conceived and bore Chanoch. And he then founded a city, and named the city after his son Chanoch.
18 To Chanoch was born Irad, and Irad begot Mehujael, and Mehujael begot Methusael, and Methusael begot Lemech.
יח וַיִּוָּלֵד לַחֲנוֹךְ אֶת־עִירָד וְעִירָד יָלַד אֶת־מְחוּיָאֵל וּמְחִיּיָאֵל יָלַד אֶת־מְתוּשָׁאֵל וּמְתוּשָׁאֵל יָלַד אֶת־לָמֶךְ׃
19 Lemech took to himself two wives: the name of the one was Adah, and the name of the other was Zillah.
20 Adah bore Jabal; he was the ancestor of those who dwell in tents and amidst herds.
כ וַתֵּלֶד עָדָה אֶת־יָבָל הוּא הָיָה אֲבִי יֹשֵׁב אֹהֶל וּמִקְנֶה׃
21 And the name of his brother was Jubal; he was the ancestor of all who play the lyre and the pipe.
כא וְשֵׁם אָחִיו יוּבָל הוּא הָיָה אֲבִי כָּל־תֹּפֵשׂ כִּנּוֹר וְעוּגָב׃
22 As for Zillah, she bore Tubal-cain, who forged all implements of copper and iron. And the sister of Tubal-cain was Naamah.
23 And Lemech said to his wives, “Adah and Zillah, hear my voice; O wives of Lemech, give ear to my speech. I have slain a man for wounding me, a lad for bruising me.
כג וַיֹּאמֶר לֶמֶךְ לְנָשָׁיו עָדָה וְצִלָּה שְׁמַעַן קוֹלִי נְשֵׁי לֶמֶךְ הַאְזֵנָּה אִמְרָתִי כִּי אִישׁ הָרַגְתִּי לְפִצְעִי וְיֶלֶד לְחַבֻּרָתִי׃
24 If Cain is avenged sevenfold, Then Lemech seventy-sevenfold.”
כד כִּי שִׁבְעָתַיִם יֻקַּם־קָיִן וְלֶמֶךְ שִׁבְעִים וְשִׁבְעָה׃
26 And to Shet, in turn, a son was born, and he named him Enosh. It was then that men began to invoke Hashem by name.
כו וּלְשֵׁת גַּם־הוּא יֻלַּד־בֵּן וַיִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ אֱנוֹשׁ אָז הוּחַל לִקְרֹא בְּשֵׁם יְהֹוָה׃