TORAH
FIVE BOOKS OF MOSES
NEVI'IM
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Genesis 10

1These are the lines of Shem, Ham, and Japheth, the sons of Noach: sons were born to them after the Flood.

אוְאֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדֹת בְּנֵי־נֹחַ שֵׁם חָם וָיָפֶת וַיִּוָּלְדוּ לָהֶם בָּנִים אַחַר הַמַּבּוּל׃

2The descendants of Japheth: Gomer, Magog, Media, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras.

בבְּנֵי יֶפֶת גֹּמֶר וּמָגוֹג וּמָדַי וְיָוָן וְתֻבָל וּמֶשֶׁךְ וְתִירָס׃

3The descendants of Gomer: Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah.

גוּבְנֵי גֹּמֶר אַשְׁכֲּנַז וְרִיפַת וְתֹגַרְמָה׃

4The descendants of Javan: Elishah and Tarshish, the Kittim and the Dodanim.

דוּבְנֵי יָוָן אֱלִישָׁה וְתַרְשִׁישׁ כִּתִּים וְדֹדָנִים׃

5From these the maritime nations branched out. [These are the descendants of Japheth] by their lands—each with its language—their clans and their nations.

may-AY-leh nif-r'-DU i-YAY ha-go-YIM b'-ar-tzo-TAM EESH lil-sho-NO l'-mish-p'-kho-TAM b'-go-yay-HEM

המֵאֵלֶּה נִפְרְדוּ אִיֵּי הַגּוֹיִם בְּאַרְצֹתָם אִישׁ לִלְשֹׁנוֹ לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָם בְּגוֹיֵהֶם׃

 10:5   From these the maritime nations branched out

This chapter lists the generations that emerged from Noach’s sons after the flood, implying that the nations spread out as a result of natural population growth. Hence, the word nifridu (נפרדו), ‘divided,’ which connotes natural separation, is used here, as opposed to the term vayafetz (ויפץ), ‘scattered,’ used in the story of the Tower of Babylon (11:8), which connotes forced dispersion. Similarly, the choice of the word lashon (לשון), ’tongue,’ as opposed to safa (שפה),‘language,’ which is used in chapter eleven, indicates a natural evolution of dialects as nations moved away from each other. Conceivably, new languages were not yet initiated, only dialects of Hebrew. Rabbi Zalman Sorotzkin, who fled Europe and arrived in Israel during World War II, points out that this verse mentions the three aspects that unite a nation; common ancestry, land and language. Although the Jewish people can be found all over the world, they are united by their common ancestry, their connection to Eretz Yisrael and their ability to converse in Hebrew.

6The descendants of Ham: Cush, Mizraim, Put, and Canaan.

ווּבְנֵי חָם כּוּשׁ וּמִצְרַיִם וּפוּט וּכְנָעַן׃

7The descendants of Cush: Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, and Sabteca. The descendants of Raamah: Sheba and Dedan.

זוּבְנֵי כוּשׁ סְבָא וַחֲוִילָה וְסַבְתָּה וְרַעְמָה וְסַבְתְּכָא וּבְנֵי רַעְמָה שְׁבָא וּדְדָן׃

8Cush also begot Nimrod, who was the first man of might on earth.

חוְכוּשׁ יָלַד אֶת־נִמְרֹד הוּא הֵחֵל לִהְיוֹת גִּבֹּר בָּאָרֶץ׃

9He was a mighty hunter by the grace of Hashem; hence the saying, “Like Nimrod a mighty hunter by the grace of Hashem.”

טהוּא־הָיָה גִבֹּר־צַיִד לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה עַל־כֵּן יֵאָמַר כְּנִמְרֹד גִּבּוֹר צַיִד לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה׃

10The mainstays of his kingdom were Babylon, Erech, Accad, and Calneh in the land of Shinar.

יוַתְּהִי רֵאשִׁית מַמְלַכְתּוֹ בָּבֶל וְאֶרֶךְ וְאַכַּד וְכַלְנֵה בְּאֶרֶץ שִׁנְעָר׃

11From that land Assyria went forth and built Nineveh, Rehoboth-ir, Calah,

יאמִן־הָאָרֶץ הַהִוא יָצָא אַשּׁוּר וַיִּבֶן אֶת־נִינְוֵה וְאֶת־רְחֹבֹת עִיר וְאֶת־כָּלַח׃

12and Resen between Nineveh and Calah, that is the great city.

יבוְאֶת־רֶסֶן בֵּין נִינְוֵה וּבֵין כָּלַח הִוא הָעִיר הַגְּדֹלָה׃

13And Mizraim begot the Ludim, the Anamim, the Lehabim, the Naphtuhim,

יגוּמִצְרַיִם יָלַד אֶת־לוּדִים וְאֶת־עֲנָמִים וְאֶת־לְהָבִים וְאֶת־נַפְתֻּחִים׃

14the Pathrusim, the Casluhim, and the Caphtorim,* whence the Philistines came forth.

ידוְאֶת־פַּתְרֻסִים וְאֶת־כַּסְלֻחִים אֲשֶׁר יָצְאוּ מִשָּׁם פְּלִשְׁתִּים וְאֶת־כַּפְתֹּרִים׃

15Canaan begot Tzidon, his first-born, and Heth;

טווּכְנַעַן יָלַד אֶת־צִידֹן בְּכֹרוֹ וְאֶת־חֵת׃

16and the Jebusites, the Amorites, the Girgashites,

טזוְאֶת־הַיְבוּסִי וְאֶת־הָאֱמֹרִי וְאֵת הַגִּרְגָּשִׁי׃

17the Hivites, the Arkites, the Sinites,

יזוְאֶת־הַחִוִּי וְאֶת־הַעַרְקִי וְאֶת־הַסִּינִי׃

18the Arvadites, the Zemarites, and the Hamathites. Afterward the clans of the Canaanites spread out.

יחוְאֶת־הָאַרְוָדִי וְאֶת־הַצְּמָרִי וְאֶת־הַחֲמָתִי וְאַחַר נָפֹצוּ מִשְׁפְּחוֹת הַכְּנַעֲנִי׃

19The [original] Canaanite territory extended from Tzidon as far as Gerar, near Azza, and as far as Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboiim, near Lasha.

יטוַיְהִי גְּבוּל הַכְּנַעֲנִי מִצִּידֹן בֹּאֲכָה גְרָרָה עַד־עַזָּה בֹּאֲכָה סְדֹמָה וַעֲמֹרָה וְאַדְמָה וּצְבֹיִם עַד־לָשַׁע׃

20These are the descendants of Ham, according to their clans and languages, by their lands and nations.

כאֵלֶּה בְנֵי־חָם לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָם לִלְשֹׁנֹתָם בְּאַרְצֹתָם בְּגוֹיֵהֶם׃

21Sons were also born to Shem, ancestor of all the descendants of Ever and older brother of Japheth.

כאוּלְשֵׁם יֻלַּד גַּם־הוּא אֲבִי כָּל־בְּנֵי־עֵבֶר אֲחִי יֶפֶת הַגָּדוֹל׃

22The descendants of Shem: Elam, Assyria, Arpachshad, Lud, and Aram.

כבבְּנֵי שֵׁם עֵילָם וְאַשּׁוּר וְאַרְפַּכְשַׁד וְלוּד וַאֲרָם׃

23The descendants of Aram: Uz, Hul, Gether, and Mash.

כגוּבְנֵי אֲרָם עוּץ וְחוּל וְגֶתֶר וָמַשׁ׃

24Arpachshad begot Sheila, and Sheila begot Ever.

כדוְאַרְפַּכְשַׁד יָלַד אֶת־שָׁלַח וְשֶׁלַח יָלַד אֶת־עֵבֶר׃

25Two sons were born to Ever: the name of the first was Peleg, for in his days the earth was divided; and the name of his brother was Joktan.

כהוּלְעֵבֶר יֻלַּד שְׁנֵי בָנִים שֵׁם הָאֶחָד פֶּלֶג כִּי בְיָמָיו נִפְלְגָה הָאָרֶץ וְשֵׁם אָחִיו יָקְטָן׃

26Joktan begot Almodad, Sheleph, Hazarmaveth, Jerah,

כווְיָקְטָן יָלַד אֶת־אַלְמוֹדָד וְאֶת־שָׁלֶף וְאֶת־חֲצַרְמָוֶת וְאֶת־יָרַח׃

27Hadoram, Uzal, Diklah,

כזוְאֶת־הֲדוֹרָם וְאֶת־אוּזָל וְאֶת־דִּקְלָה׃

28Obal, Abimael, Sheba,

כחוְאֶת־עוֹבָל וְאֶת־אֲבִימָאֵל וְאֶת־שְׁבָא׃

29Ophir, Havilah, and Jobab; all these were the descendants of Joktan.

כטוְאֶת־אוֹפִר וְאֶת־חֲוִילָה וְאֶת־יוֹבָב כָּל־אֵלֶּה בְּנֵי יָקְטָן׃

30Their settlements extended from Mesha as far as Sephar, the hill country to the east.

לוַיְהִי מוֹשָׁבָם מִמֵּשָׁא בֹּאֲכָה סְפָרָה הַר הַקֶּדֶם׃

31These are the descendants of Shem according to their clans and languages, by their lands, according to their nations.

לאאֵלֶּה בְנֵי־שֵׁם לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָם לִלְשֹׁנֹתָם בְּאַרְצֹתָם לְגוֹיֵהֶם׃

32These are the groupings of Noach's descendants, according to their origins, by their nations; and from these the nations branched out over the earth after the Flood.

לבאֵלֶּה מִשְׁפְּחֹת בְּנֵי־נֹחַ לְתוֹלְדֹתָם בְּגוֹיֵהֶם וּמֵאֵלֶּה נִפְרְדוּ הַגּוֹיִם בָּאָרֶץ אַחַר הַמַּבּוּל׃