Exodus 20
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1  Hashem spoke all these words, saying:

א  וַיְדַבֵּר אֱלֹהִים אֵת כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה לֵאמֹר׃

2  I Hashem am your God who brought you out of the land of Egypt, the house of bondage:

ב  אָנֹכִי יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִיךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים׃

3  You shall have no other gods besides Me.

ג  לֹא יִהְיֶה־לְךָ אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים עַל־פָּנָיַ

4  You shall not make for yourself a sculptured image, or any likeness of what is in the heavens above, or on the earth below, or in the waters under the earth.

ד  לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה־לְךָ פֶסֶל וְכָל־תְּמוּנָה אֲשֶׁר בַּשָּׁמַיִם מִמַּעַל וַאֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ מִתַָּחַת וַאֲשֶׁר בַּמַּיִם מִתַּחַת לָאָרֶץ

5  You shall not bow down to them or serve them. For I Hashem your God am an impassioned God, visiting the guilt of the parents upon the children, upon the third and upon the fourth generations of those who reject Me,

ה  לֹא־תִשְׁתַּחְוֶה לָהֶם וְלֹא תָעָבְדֵם כִּי אָנֹכִי יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֵל קַנָּא פֹּקֵד עֲוׂן אָבֹת עַל־בָּנִים עַל־שִׁלֵּשִׁים וְעַל־רִבֵּעִים לְשֹׂנְאָי׃

6  but showing kindness to the thousandth generation of those who love Me and keep My commandments.

ו  וְעֹשֶׂה חֶסֶד לַאֲלָפִים לְאֹהֲבַי וּלְשֹׁמְרֵי מִצְוׂתָי׃

7  You shall not swear falsely by the name of Hashem your God; for Hashem will not clear one who swears falsely by His name.

ז  לֹא תִשָּׂא אֶת־שֵׁם־יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לַשָּׁוְא כִּי לֹא יְנַקֶּה יְהֹוָה אֵת אֲשֶׁר־יִשָּׂא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ לַשָּׁוְא׃

8  Remember the Shabbat day and keep it holy.

ח  זָכוֹר אֶת־יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת לְקַדְּשׁוֹ

9  Six days you shall labor and do all your work,

ט  שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תַּעֲבֹד וְעָשִׂיתָ כָּל־מְלַאכְתֶּךָ

10  but the seventh day is a Shabbat of Hashem your God: you shall not do any work—you, your son or daughter, your male or female slave, or your cattle, or the stranger who is within your settlements.

י  וְיוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי שַׁבָּת לַיהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לֹא־תַעֲשֶׂה כָל־מְלָאכָה אַתָּה וּבִנְךָ־וּבִתֶּךָ עַבְדְּךָ וַאֲמָתְךָ וּבְהֶמְתֶּךָ וְגֵרְךָ אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ

11  For in six days Hashem made heaven and earth and sea, and all that is in them, and He rested on the seventh day; therefore Hashem blessed the Shabbat day and hallowed it.

יא  כִּי שֵׁשֶׁת־יָמִים עָשָׂה יְהֹוָה אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֶת־הַיָּם וְאֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־בָּם וַיָּנַח בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי עַל־כֵּן בֵּרַךְ יְהֹוָה אֶת־יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת וַיְקַדְּשֵׁהוּ׃

12  Honor your father and your mother, that you may long endure on the land that Hashem your God is assigning to you.

יב  כַּבֵּד אֶת־אָבִיךָ וְאֶת־אִמֶּךָ לְמַעַן יַאֲרִכוּן יָמֶיךָ עַל הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר־יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ׃

13  You shall not murder. You shall not commit adultery. You shall not steal. You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor.

יג  לֹא תִּרְצָח׃ לֹא תִּנְאָף׃ לֹא תִּגְנֹב׃ לֹא־תַעֲנֶה בְרֵעֲךָ עֵד שָׁקֶר׃

14  You shall not covet your neighbor’s house: you shall not covet your neighbor’s wife, or his male or female slave, or his ox or his ass, or anything that is your neighbor’s.

יד  לֹא תַחְמֹד בֵּית רֵעֶךָ לֹא־תַחְמֹד אֵשֶׁת רֵעֶךָ וְעַבְדּוֹ וַאֲמָתוֹ וְשׁוֹרוֹ וַחֲמֹרוֹ וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר לְרֵעֶךָ׃

15  All the people witnessed the thunder and lightning, the blare of the shofar and the mountain smoking; and when the people saw it, they fell back and stood at a distance.

טו  וְכָל־הָעָם רֹאִים אֶת־הַקּוֹלֹת וְאֶת־הַלַּפִּידִם וְאֵת קוֹל הַשֹּׁפָר וְאֶת־הָהָר עָשֵׁן וַיַּרְא הָעָם וַיָּנֻעוּ וַיַּעַמְדוּ מֵרָחֹק׃

16  “You speak to us,” they said to Moshe, “and we will obey; but let not Hashem speak to us, lest we die.”

טז  וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֶל־מֹשֶׁה דַּבֵּר־אַתָּה עִמָּנוּ וְנִשְׁמָעָה וְאַל־יְדַבֵּר עִמָּנוּ אֱלֹהִים פֶּן־נָמוּת׃

17  Moshe answered the people, “Be not afraid; for Hashem has come only in order to test you, and in order that the fear of Him may be ever with you, so that you do not go astray.”

יז  וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־הָעָם אַל־תִּירָאוּ כִּי לְבַעֲבוּר נַסּוֹת אֶתְכֶם בָּא הָאֱלֹהִים וּבַעֲבוּר תִּהְיֶה יִרְאָתוֹ עַל־פְּנֵיכֶם לְבִלְתִּי תֶחֱטָאוּ׃

18  So the people remained at a distance, while Moshe approached the thick cloud where Hashem was.

יח  וַיַּעֲמֹד הָעָם מֵרָחֹק וּמֹשֶׁה נִגַּשׁ אֶל־הָעֲרָפֶל אֲשֶׁר־שָׁם הָאֱלֹהִים׃

19  Hashem said to Moshe: Thus shall you say to the Israelites: You yourselves saw that I spoke to you from the very heavens:

יט  וַיֹּאמֶר יְהֹוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה כֹּה תֹאמַר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אַתֶּם רְאִיתֶם כִּי מִן־הַשָּׁמַיִם דִּבַּרְתִּי עִמָּכֶם׃

20  With Me, therefore, you shall not make any gods of silver, nor shall you make for yourselves any gods of gold.

miz-BAKH a-da-MAH ta-a-seh LEE v’-za-vakh-TA a-LAV et o-lo-TE-kha v’-et sh’-la-ME-kha et tzo-n’-KHA v’-et b’-ka-RE-kha b’-khol ha-ma-KOM a-SHER az-KEER et sh’-MEE a-VO ay-LE-kha u-vay-rakh-TEE-kha

כ  לֹא תַעֲשׂוּן אִתִּי אֱלֹהֵי כֶסֶף וֵאלֹהֵי זָהָב לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ לָכֶם׃

21  Make for Me a mizbayach of earth and sacrifice on it your burnt offerings and your sacrifices of well-being, your sheep and your oxen; in every place where I cause My name to be mentioned I will come to you and bless you.

miz-BAKH a-da-MAH ta-a-SEH lee v’-za-vakh-TA a-LAV et o-lo-TE-kha v’-ET sh’-la-ME-kha et tzo-n’-KHA v’-ET b’-ka-RE-kha b’-KHOL ha-ma-KOM a-SHER az-KEER et sh’-MEE a-VO ay-LE-kha u-vay-rakh-TEE-kha

כא  מִזְבַּח אֲדָמָה תַּעֲשֶׂה־לִּי וְזָבַחְתָּ עָלָיו אֶת־עֹלֹתֶיךָ וְאֶת־שְׁלָמֶיךָ אֶת־צֹאנְךָ וְאֶת־בְּקָרֶךָ בְּכָל־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר אַזְכִּיר אֶת־שְׁמִי אָבוֹא אֵלֶיךָ וּבֵרַכְתִּיךָ׃

 20:21   In every place where I cause My name to be mentioned

Based on this verse, Rashi explains that God’s forty-two letter name can only be uttered where the Divine Presence resides. The Beit Hamikdash in Yerushalayim was, therefore, the only place where the Kohanim could use this special name when giving the priestly blessing to the people. The description of the blessing, found in Sefer Bamidbar (6:23-27), ends with the following verse: “Thus they shall link My name with the People of Israel, and I will bless them.” Even though the Kohanim were the ones standing in front of the people and invoking Hashem’s name to bless them, the blessing itself comes from Hashem. To this day, the priestly blessing is recited daily throughout Israel. In the rest of the world, this blessing is only recited a few times a year, on holidays. The recitation of the Priestly Blessing is a constant reminder that all blessing in our lives ultimately comes from Hashem.Comment

22  And if you make for Me a mizbayach of stones, do not build it of hewn stones; for by wielding your tool upon them you have profaned them.

כב  וְאִם־מִזְבַּח אֲבָנִים תַּעֲשֶׂה־לִּי לֹא־תִבְנֶה אֶתְהֶן גָּזִית כִּי חַרְבְּךָ הֵנַפְתָּ עָלֶיהָ וַתְּחַלְלֶהָ׃

23  Do not ascend My mizbayach by steps, that your nakedness may not be exposed upon it.

כג  וְלֹא־תַעֲלֶה בְמַעֲלֹת עַל־מִזְבְּחִי אֲשֶׁר לֹא־תִגָּלֶה עֶרְוָתְךָ עָלָיו׃

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Exodus 19
Exodus 21

Comment ( 1 )

The comments below do not necessarily reflect the beliefs and opinions of The Israel Bible™.

  • Phil Lambert

    Was Yesha'yahu a true Prophet of YHWH or was he a false Prophet when he prophesied the following approximately 700 years before the birth of Yeshua:
    .
    —Isaiah 9:6 For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace.
    7 Of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end, upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to order it, and to establish it with judgment and with justice from henceforth even for ever. The zeal of the Lord of hosts will perform this.
    —Isaiah 52:14-15
    14 As many were astonied at thee; his visage was so marred more than any man, and his form more than the sons of men:
    15 So shall he sprinkle many nations; the kings shall shut their mouths at him: for that which had not been told them shall they see; and that which they had not heard shall they consider.
    —Isaiah 53:3-11
    3 He is despised and rejected of men; a man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief: and we hid as it were our faces from him; he was despised, and we esteemed him not.
    4 Surely he hath borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows: yet we did esteem him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted.
    5 But he was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was upon him; and with his stripes we are healed.
    6 All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned every one to his own way; and the Lord hath laid on him the iniquity of us all.
    7 He was oppressed, and he was afflicted, yet he opened not his mouth: he is brought as a lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before her shearers is dumb, so he openeth not his mouth.
    8 He was taken from prison and from judgment: and who shall declare his generation? for he was cut off out of the land of the living: for the transgression of my people was he stricken.
    9 And he made his grave with the wicked, and with the rich in his death; because he had done no violence, neither was any deceit in his mouth.
    10 Yet it pleased the Lord to bruise him; he hath put him to grief: when thou shalt make his soul an offering for sin, he shall see his seed, he shall prolong his days, and the pleasure of the Lord shall prosper in his hand.
    11 He shall see of the travail of his soul, and shall be satisfied: by his knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many; for he shall bear their iniquities.
    ………………………………………………………………………………..
    Can you describe Jesus' physical sufferings on His final day?
    By: Steve Shirley
    A: Based on both Biblical and historical evidence, I think it is safe to say that Jesus may have suffered more physical pain in His final hours on Earth than any man in history. As I have studied this over Easter, I have had chills as I read what He endured. I believe you will find, as I have, that it certainly gives you a greater appreciation for what Jesus has done on our behalf because He loves us SO much!
    The Bible shows us that Jesus (being God in the flesh) knew ahead of time the things He was going to suffer before they happened (Jn 18:4)(Mt 26:36-42)(Mk 14:34-37)(Lk 22:39-44). This caused Him such distress that as He prayed in the Garden of Gethsemane, just before His arrest, "His sweat became like drops of blood, falling down upon the ground" (Lk 22:44). This rare phenomena is called "hematidrosis" and it occurs when under extreme stress, the small capillaries surrounding the sweat glands burst, and blood mixed with sweat pours out of the sweat glands.
    The beginning of these sufferings was right after He was betrayed, arrested, and deserted by the disciples (Mt 26:56). He was taken to the High Priest's house, where He was struck in the face by an officer of the High Priest (Jn 18:22). Shortly afterwards, He was blindfolded, then beaten and spit upon by the men around Him (Mt 26:67-68)(Mk 14:65)(Lk 22:63-65), and had his beard pulled out (Isa 50:6). After this beating, He was sent to Pontus Pilate, who questioned Him and then sent Him to Herod after finding out He was a Galilean (Lk 23:6-7). Herod, along with his men, "treated him with contempt, mocked Him, dressed Him in a gorgeous robe, and sent Him back to Pilate" (Lk 23:11). Pilate questioned Him some more, and then giving into the crowds wishes, ordered Jesus to be crucified (Mt 27:22-26)(Mk 15:12-15)(Lk 23:23-24)(Jn 19:15-16).
    Before being led to the crucifixion site, Pilate ordered that Jesus be flogged (Mt 27:26)(Mk 15:15)(Jn 19:1). This was a HORRIFIC ordeal! In fact, it was so bad that Roman law would not allow Roman citizens to undergo it (see: Acts 22:24-29). The victim was first stripped of all clothing, then tied to a post with his hands above his head (to stretch the skin making the wounds worse). He was then flogged by one or two people with a whip (or flagellum). This whip (often called a cat-o-nine tails) consisted of a handle (about 18" long) with 9 leather straps about 6 or 7 feet long, and at the end of each strap was small lead balls mixed with pieces of animal bone or metal. These would tear into the body more and more with each successive lashing, with the lead balls ripping into the skin and the jagged pieces of bone or metal tearing it out. As the flogging progressed, muscles, vital organs, and even the spine could often be seen openly. Huge strips of skin would be hanging from the body.
    According to Jewish law, this beating had to be stopped after 40 lashes (Deut 25:1-3), however, the Jews made a tradition of 39 lashes just in case a mistake in counting was made: see 2 Cor 11:24). The Romans had no such law though, and may or may not have exceeded this limit.
    After this flogging, the victim was untied and fell to the ground, often unconscious, sometimes dead never even making it to the crucifixion. Jesus survived it without losing consciousness (partly a testament to His good health I am sure), and then came the next torture. He was then clothed and led to the Praetorium where the soldiers stripped Him again, likely tearing the flesh off His back as the drying blood adhered to the cloth. They put a scarlet robe on Him, and made a crown of thorns, placing it upon His head. They then mocked Him some more, spit upon Him, and struck Him on the head with a reed, driving the crown of thorns into His head (Mt 27:29-30)(Mk 15:16-20)(Jn 19:2-3). These thorns were about 2" long and extremely sharp. Since head wounds tend to bleed easily and profusely, Jesus had blood pouring down His face from these thorns.
    The soldiers then took the robe off of Him (likely tearing off more flesh), and put His own clothes back on Him (Mt 27:31). After the flogging, the victim was made to carry his cross to the crucifixion site. Most scholars and historians believe it likely that Jesus did not carry a full cross as is often depicted, but rather, He carried a "crossbeam" (or "patibulum"). In those times, the cross usually consisted of a vertical beam which had been permanently secured in the ground, and a crossbeam which was placed atop this vertical beam. This crossbeam usually weighed around 100-150 lbs., and was about the size of a railroad tie. The condemned would carry this crossbeam on his shoulders to the vertical beam at the crucifixion site.
    According to the Bible, Jesus was so weakened from His beatings that He could not carry His cross to the crucifixion site. Therefore, a man named Simon from Cyrene was told to carry Jesus' cross for Him (Mt 27:32)(Mk 15:21)(Lk 23:26). The distance to the place of crucifixion was only about 650 yards away, and reached by a path called the Via Dolorosa ("way of suffering").
    ** It should also be noted that at this point Jesus hadn't slept in 36 hours and had been walked back and forth for several miles between places in His weakened condition.
    By the time Jesus reached the crucifixion site, He was probably in what a hospital would call "critical condition." At this point, His hands were nailed to the patibulum (or possibly the full cross). Another point that most scholars and historians agree upon is that "hands" really means "wrists." The hands could not have been nailed to the cross because they could not support the weight of a man's body hanging on the cross. The nail would rip right out of the hand. The wrists, however, could hold a man's weight when done properly. History seems to bear out that this was what the Romans did. The Romans had perfected this technique, driving a 5-7" nail (more like a spike) between the radius and ulna bones in the wrist and directly into the median nerve. This gave maximum strength and caused maximum pain, as well as minimal blood loss. (One source said it would be like being struck with a cattle prod that never stopped shocking.) More on this subject here.
    After being nailed to the patibulum, the patibalum was hoisted up to the top of the vertical beam with the victim attached (all of the victim's weight was on the wrists nailed to the patibulum). This often caused the shoulders to be dislocated, and could have happened to Jesus (read Ps 22:14, a prophecy about Jesus saying "all my bones are out of joint"). Once the patibulum was attached to the vertical beam, the victim's feet were placed one on top of the other and nailed to the vertical beam (knees at an angle). Sometimes, a small platform was placed just below the feet so the victim could push up on it.
    At this point, slow death usually occurred. Cruelly, crucifixion was not meant to kill victims quickly, but slowly over a period of days. A victim would sometimes die after a few hours (often depending on how badly they had been beaten beforehand), but more often they would live for several days, and sometimes for even a week or more. During this time, they would endure excruciating pain. In fact, we got the word "excruciating" from the cross (Latin "excruciatus" meaning "to crucify."
    While nailed to the cross, the victim could easily breathe in, but he could not exhale. The only way to exhale was to push up with his feet, causing searing pain in his nailed feet. It also caused his open back wounds to rub up against the rough vertical beam. In addition, the victim would suffer from severe cramps, dehydration, lungs slowly filling with fluid, bugs eating into the wounds, and birds picking at the wounds, among other things…
    When the victim could no longer push up, he would lapse into unconsciousness and suffocate. Death by asphyxiation. If the Romans wanted to end this process early, they would break the legs of the victim by smacking the shin bone with a spear until it broke in half, thereby not allowing the victim to raise himself. Death would occur in a few minutes. This was done to the two thieves that were crucified on each side of Jesus. (Jn 19:31-37) says the Romans broke their legs because the Jews wanted them dead and buried before the Sabbath, which was going to be in a few hours. Jesus' legs were not broken though, because He was already dead, having dismissed His spirit (Mt 27:50). This fulfilled prophecy which stated no bones would be broken on Jesus (Ps 34:20). (Also see: Ex 12:46 which points to this)
    During the time Jesus was on the cross (6 hours: Mk 15:25,33-34,37), he said 7 things (See: Q: #70). Each of these precious statements should be magnified even more when we know that in order to say them, He had to push up, causing the searing pain we discussed above. At the end of His life, Jesus said, "It is finished" (Jn 19:30). This meant that His work of atonement to pay for our sins was completed. Friend, Jesus did all of that suffering because He loves YOU! He gave His life so that you could spend eternity in Heaven with Him. Have you surrendered your life to Him and accepted that payment?
    ………………………………………………………………………………
    John 3:3-7
    3 Jesus answered and said unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God.
    4 Nicodemus saith unto him, How can a man be born when he is old? can he enter the second time into his mother's womb, and be born?
    5 Jesus answered, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God.
    6 That which is born of the flesh is flesh; and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit.
    7 Marvel not that I said unto thee, Ye must be born again.

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Exodus 20

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