Exodus 22

1If the thief is seized while tunneling, and he is beaten to death, there is no bloodguilt in his case.

אאִם־בַּמַּחְתֶּרֶת יִמָּצֵא הַגַּנָּב וְהֻכָּה וָמֵת אֵין לוֹ דָּמִים׃

2If the sun has risen on him, there is bloodguilt in that case.—He must make restitution; if he lacks the means, he shall be sold for his theft.

באִם־זָרְחָה הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ עָלָיו דָּמִים לוֹ שַׁלֵּם יְשַׁלֵּם אִם־אֵין לוֹ וְנִמְכַּר בִּגְנֵבָתוֹ׃

3But if what he stole—whether ox or ass or sheep—is found alive in his possession, he shall pay double.

im hi-ma-TZAY ti-ma-TZAY v'-ya-DO ha-g'-nay-VAH mi-SHOR ad kha-MOR ad SEH kha-YEEM sh'-NA-yim y'-sha-LAYM

גאִם־הִמָּצֵא תִמָּצֵא בְיָדוֹ הַגְּנֵבָה מִשּׁוֹר עַד־חֲמוֹר עַד־שֶׂה חַיִּים שְׁנַיִם יְשַׁלֵּם׃

 22:3   He shall pay double

Rambam (1135-1204)

The double payment for damages commanded in this verse is considered a penalty. Rabbi Moshe Lichtman, in his book Eretz Yisrael in the Parsha, reflects that according to Jewish Law, the authority for implementation of this penalty, and many others, rests only upon judges who have been ordained with a special authorization that was passed down from teacher to student beginning with Moshe. This chain of ordination was unfortunately broken at the time of the Bar Kochba revolt in the second century CE. However, Maimonides, a medieval scholar, philosopher and physician known by his Hebrew acronym Rambam, rules that once the masses of Jews reside in Eretz Yisrael and the rabbinic authorities there agree, this special ordination can be reinstated.

4When a man lets his livestock loose to graze in another's land, and so allows a field or a vineyard to be grazed bare, he must make restitution for the impairment of that field or vineyard.

דכִּי יַבְעֶר־אִישׁ שָׂדֶה אוֹ־כֶרֶם וְשִׁלַּח אֶת־בעירה [בְּעִירוֹ] וּבִעֵר בִּשְׂדֵה אַחֵר מֵיטַב שָׂדֵהוּ וּמֵיטַב כַּרְמוֹ יְשַׁלֵּם׃

5When a fire is started and spreads to thorns, so that stacked, standing, or growing grain is consumed, he who started the fire must make restitution.

הכִּי־תֵצֵא אֵשׁ וּמָצְאָה קֹצִים וְנֶאֱכַל גָּדִישׁ אוֹ הַקָּמָה אוֹ הַשָּׂדֶה שַׁלֵּם יְשַׁלֵּם הַמַּבְעִר אֶת־הַבְּעֵרָה׃

6When a man gives money or goods to another for safekeeping, and they are stolen from the man's house—if the thief is caught, he shall pay double;

וכִּי־יִתֵּן אִישׁ אֶל־רֵעֵהוּ כֶּסֶף אוֹ־כֵלִים לִשְׁמֹר וְגֻנַּב מִבֵּית הָאִישׁ אִם־יִמָּצֵא הַגַּנָּב יְשַׁלֵּם שְׁנָיִם׃

7if the thief is not caught, the owner of the house shall depose before Hashem that he has not laid hands on the other's property.

זאִם־לֹא יִמָּצֵא הַגַּנָּב וְנִקְרַב בַּעַל־הַבַּיִת אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִים אִם־לֹא שָׁלַח יָדוֹ בִּמְלֶאכֶת רֵעֵהוּ׃

8In all charges of misappropriation—pertaining to an ox, an ass, a sheep, a garment, or any other loss, whereof one party alleges, “This is it”—the case of both parties shall come before Hashem: he whom Hashem declares guilty shall pay double to the other.

חעַל־כָּל־דְּבַר־פֶּשַׁע עַל־שׁוֹר עַל־חֲמוֹר עַל־שֶׂה עַל־שַׂלְמָה עַל־כָּל־אֲבֵדָה אֲשֶׁר יֹאמַר כִּי־הוּא זֶה עַד הָאֱלֹהִים יָבֹא דְּבַר־שְׁנֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר יַרְשִׁיעֻן אֱלֹהִים יְשַׁלֵּם שְׁנַיִם לְרֵעֵהוּ׃

9When a man gives to another an ass, an ox, a sheep or any other animal to guard, and it dies or is injured or is carried off, with no witness about,

טכִּי־יִתֵּן אִישׁ אֶל־רֵעֵהוּ חֲמוֹר אוֹ־שׁוֹר אוֹ־שֶׂה וְכָל־בְּהֵמָה לִשְׁמֹר וּמֵת אוֹ־נִשְׁבַּר אוֹ־נִשְׁבָּה אֵין רֹאֶה׃

10an oath before Hashem shall decide between the two of them that the one has not laid hands on the property of the other; the owner must acquiesce, and no restitution shall be made.

ישְׁבֻעַת יְהֹוָה תִּהְיֶה בֵּין שְׁנֵיהֶם אִם־לֹא שָׁלַח יָדוֹ בִּמְלֶאכֶת רֵעֵהוּ וְלָקַח בְּעָלָיו וְלֹא יְשַׁלֵּם׃

11But if [the animal] was stolen from him, he shall make restitution to its owner.

יאוְאִם־גָּנֹב יִגָּנֵב מֵעִמּוֹ יְשַׁלֵּם לִבְעָלָיו׃

12If it was torn by beasts, he shall bring it as evidence; he need not replace what has been torn by beasts.

יבאִם־טָרֹף יִטָּרֵף יְבִאֵהוּ עֵד הַטְּרֵפָה לֹא יְשַׁלֵּם׃

13When a man borrows [an animal] from another and it dies or is injured, its owner not being with it, he must make restitution.

יגוְכִי־יִשְׁאַל אִישׁ מֵעִם רֵעֵהוּ וְנִשְׁבַּר אוֹ־מֵת בְּעָלָיו אֵין־עִמּוֹ שַׁלֵּם יְשַׁלֵּם׃

14If its owner was with it, no restitution need be made; but if it was hired, he is entitled to the hire.

ידאִם־בְּעָלָיו עִמּוֹ לֹא יְשַׁלֵּם אִם־שָׂכִיר הוּא בָּא בִּשְׂכָרוֹ׃

15If a man seduces a virgin for whom the bride-price has not been paid, and lies with her, he must make her his wife by payment of a bride-price.

טווְכִי־יְפַתֶּה אִישׁ בְּתוּלָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־אֹרָשָׂה וְשָׁכַב עִמָּהּ מָהֹר יִמְהָרֶנָּה לּוֹ לְאִשָּׁה׃

16If her father refuses to give her to him, he must still weigh out silver in accordance with the bride-price for virgins.

טזאִם־מָאֵן יְמָאֵן אָבִיהָ לְתִתָּהּ לוֹ כֶּסֶף יִשְׁקֹל כְּמֹהַר הַבְּתוּלֹת׃

17You shall not tolerate a sorceress.

יזמְכַשֵּׁפָה לֹא תְחַיֶּה׃

18Whoever lies with a beast shall be put to death.

יחכָּל־שֹׁכֵב עִם־בְּהֵמָה מוֹת יוּמָת׃

19Whoever sacrifices to a god other than Hashem alone shall be proscribed.

יטזֹבֵחַ לָאֱלֹהִים יָחֳרָם בִּלְתִּי לַיהֹוָה לְבַדּוֹ׃

20You shall not wrong a stranger or oppress him, for you were strangers in the land of Egypt.

כוְגֵר לֹא־תוֹנֶה וְלֹא תִלְחָצֶנּוּ כִּי־גֵרִים הֱיִיתֶם בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃

21You shall not ill-treat any widow or orphan.

כאכָּל־אַלְמָנָה וְיָתוֹם לֹא תְעַנּוּן׃

22If you do mistreat them, I will heed their outcry as soon as they cry out to Me,

כבאִם־עַנֵּה תְעַנֶּה אֹתוֹ כִּי אִם־צָעֹק יִצְעַק אֵלַי שָׁמֹעַ אֶשְׁמַע צַעֲקָתוֹ׃

23and My anger shall blaze forth and I will put you to the sword, and your own wives shall become widows and your children orphans.

כגוְחָרָה אַפִּי וְהָרַגְתִּי אֶתְכֶם בֶּחָרֶב וְהָיוּ נְשֵׁיכֶם אַלְמָנוֹת וּבְנֵיכֶם יְתֹמִים׃

24If you lend money to My people, to the poor among you, do not act toward them as a creditor; exact no interest from them.

כדאִם־כֶּסֶף תַּלְוֶה אֶת־עַמִּי אֶת־הֶעָנִי עִמָּךְ לֹא־תִהְיֶה לוֹ כְּנֹשֶׁה לֹא־תְשִׂימוּן עָלָיו נֶשֶׁךְ׃

25If you take your neighbor's garment in pledge, you must return it to him before the sun sets;

כהאִם־חָבֹל תַּחְבֹּל שַׂלְמַת רֵעֶךָ עַד־בֹּא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ תְּשִׁיבֶנּוּ לוֹ׃

26it is his only clothing, the sole covering for his skin. In what else shall he sleep? Therefore, if he cries out to Me, I will pay heed, for I am compassionate.

כוכִּי הִוא כסותה [כְסוּתוֹ] לְבַדָּהּ הִוא שִׂמְלָתוֹ לְעֹרוֹ בַּמֶּה יִשְׁכָּב וְהָיָה כִּי־יִצְעַק אֵלַי וְשָׁמַעְתִּי כִּי־חַנּוּן אָנִי׃

27You shall not revile Hashem, nor put a curse upon a chieftain among your people.

כזאֱלֹהִים לֹא תְקַלֵּל וְנָשִׂיא בְעַמְּךָ לֹא תָאֹר׃

28You shall not put off the skimming of the first yield of your vats. You shall give Me the first-born among your sons.

כחמְלֵאָתְךָ וְדִמְעֲךָ לֹא תְאַחֵר בְּכוֹר בָּנֶיךָ תִּתֶּן־לִּי׃

29You shall do the same with your cattle and your flocks: seven days it shall remain with its mother; on the eighth day you shall give it to Me.

כטכֵּן־תַּעֲשֶׂה לְשֹׁרְךָ לְצֹאנֶךָ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים יִהְיֶה עִם־אִמּוֹ בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי תִּתְּנוֹ־לִי׃

30You shall be holy people to Me: you must not eat flesh torn by beasts in the field; you shall cast it to the dogs.

לוְאַנְשֵׁי־קֹדֶשׁ תִּהְיוּן לִי וּבָשָׂר בַּשָּׂדֶה טְרֵפָה לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ לַכֶּלֶב תַּשְׁלִכוּן אֹתוֹ׃