Leviticus 23:39
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39  Mark, on the fifteenth day of the seventh month, when you have gathered in the yield of your land,

you shall observe the festival of Hashem [to last] seven days: a complete rest on the first day, and a complete rest on the eighth day.

לט  אַךְ בַּחֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר יוֹם לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי בְּאָסְפְּכֶם אֶת־תְּבוּאַת הָאָרֶץ תָּחֹגּוּ

 23:39   On the first day you shall take

The four species

One of the unique practices of the holiday of Sukkot is the taking of the four species. The Sages of the Midrash tell us that these four species symbolize four different personality types. The etrog (אתרוג), ‘citron,’ which is both fragrant and tasty, represents a person who both knows Torah and also performs good deeds. The lulav (לולב), ‘palm branch,’ has tasty fruit but no aroma, and thus represents a person who has knowledge of Torah, but does not perform good deeds. Conversely, the hadas (הדס), ‘myrtle branch,’ has a pleasant smell but no taste, representing a person who does good deeds, but lacks Torah knowledge. And the arava (ערבה), ‘willow branch,’ which lacks both smell and taste, represents a person who has neither Torah nor good deeds. By taking these different species and holding them together, we emphasize the importance of everyone, with all of their strengths and weaknesses, coming together and uniting in the service of the one true God.

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Leviticus 23:39

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