Leviticus 11
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Listen to this chapter in Hebrew:

1  Hashem spoke to Moshe and Aharon, saying to them:

א  וַיְדַבֵּר יְהֹוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וְאֶל־אַהֲרֹן לֵאמֹר אֲלֵהֶם׃

2  Speak to B’nei Yisrael thus: These are the creatures that you may eat from among all the land animals:

ב  דַּבְּרוּ אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר זֹאת הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר תֹּאכְלוּ מִכָּל־הַבְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃

3  any animal that has true hoofs, with clefts through the hoofs, and that chews the cud—such you may eat.

ג  כֹּל מַפְרֶסֶת פַּרְסָה וְשֹׁסַעַת שֶׁסַע פְּרָסֹת מַעֲלַת גֵּרָה בַּבְּהֵמָה אֹתָהּ תֹּאכֵלוּ׃

4  The following, however, of those that either chew the cud or have true hoofs, you shall not eat: the camel—although it chews the cud, it has no true hoofs: it is unclean for you;

ד  אַךְ אֶת־זֶה לֹא תֹאכְלוּ מִמַּעֲלֵי הַגֵּרָה וּמִמַּפְרִיסֵי הַפַּרְסָה אֶת־הַגָּמָל כִּי־מַעֲלֵה גֵרָה הוּא וּפַרְסָה אֵינֶנּוּ מַפְרִיס טָמֵא הוּא לָכֶם׃

5  the daman—although it chews the cud, it has no true hoofs: it is unclean for you;

ה  וְאֶת־הַשָּׁפָן כִּי־מַעֲלֵה גֵרָה הוּא וּפַרְסָה לֹא יַפְרִיס טָמֵא הוּא לָכֶם׃

6  the hare—although it chews the cud, it has no true hoofs: it is unclean for you;

ו  וְאֶת־הָאַרְנֶבֶת כִּי־מַעֲלַת גֵּרָה הִוא וּפַרְסָה לֹא הִפְרִיסָה טְמֵאָה הִוא לָכֶם׃

7  and the swine—although it has true hoofs, with the hoofs cleft through, it does not chew the cud: it is unclean for you.

ז  וְאֶת־הַחֲזִיר כִּי־מַפְרִיס פַּרְסָה הוּא וְשֹׁסַע שֶׁסַע פַּרְסָה וְהוּא גֵּרָה לֹא־יִגָּר טָמֵא הוּא לָכֶם׃

8  You shall not eat of their flesh or touch their carcasses; they are unclean for you.

ח  מִבְּשָׂרָם לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ וּבְנִבְלָתָם לֹא תִגָּעוּ טְמֵאִים הֵם לָכֶם׃

9  These you may eat of all that live in water: anything in water, whether in the seas or in the streams, that has fins and scales—these you may eat.

ט  אֶת־זֶה תֹּאכְלוּ מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר בַּמָּיִם כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ סְנַפִּיר וְקַשְׂקֶשֶׂת בַּמַּיִם בַּיַּמִּים וּבַנְּחָלִים אֹתָם תֹּאכֵלוּ׃

10  But anything in the seas or in the streams that has no fins and scales, among all the swarming things of the water and among all the other living creatures that are in the water—they are an abomination for you

י  וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר אֵין־לוֹ סְנַפִּיר וְקַשְׂקֶשֶׂת בַּיַּמִּים וּבַנְּחָלִים מִכֹּל שֶׁרֶץ הַמַּיִם וּמִכֹּל נֶפֶשׁ הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר בַּמָּיִם שֶׁקֶץ הֵם לָכֶם׃

11  and an abomination for you they shall remain: you shall not eat of their flesh and you shall abominate their carcasses.

יא  וְשֶׁקֶץ יִהְיוּ לָכֶם מִבְּשָׂרָם לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ וְאֶת־נִבְלָתָם תְּשַׁקֵּצוּ׃

12  Everything in water that has no fins and scales shall be an abomination for you.

יב  כֹּל אֲשֶׁר אֵין־לוֹ סְנַפִּיר וְקַשְׂקֶשֶׂת בַּמָּיִם שֶׁקֶץ הוּא לָכֶם׃

13  The following you shall abominate among the birds—they shall not be eaten, they are an abomination: the eagle, the vulture, and the black vulture;

יג  וְאֶת־אֵלֶּה תְּשַׁקְּצוּ מִן־הָעוֹף לֹא יֵאָכְלוּ שֶׁקֶץ הֵם אֶת־הַנֶּשֶׁר וְאֶת־הַפֶּרֶס וְאֵת הָעָזְנִיָּה׃

14  the kite, falcons of every variety;

יד  וְאֶת־הַדָּאָה וְאֶת־הָאַיָּה לְמִינָהּ׃

15  all varieties of raven;

טו  אֵת כָּל־עֹרֵב לְמִינוֹ׃

16  the ostrich, the nighthawk, the sea gull; hawks of every variety;

טז  וְאֵת בַּת הַיַּעֲנָה וְאֶת־הַתַּחְמָס וְאֶת־הַשָּׁחַף וְאֶת־הַנֵּץ לְמִינֵהוּ׃

17  the little owl, the cormorant, and the great owl;

יז  וְאֶת־הַכּוֹס וְאֶת־הַשָּׁלָךְ וְאֶת־הַיַּנְשׁוּף׃

18  the white owl, the pelican, and the bustard;

יח  וְאֶת־הַתִּנְשֶׁמֶת וְאֶת־הַקָּאָת וְאֶת־הָרָחָם׃

19  the stork; herons of every variety; the hoopoe, and the bat.

יט  וְאֵת הַחֲסִידָה הָאֲנָפָה לְמִינָהּ וְאֶת־הַדּוּכִיפַת וְאֶת־הָעֲטַלֵּף׃

20  All winged swarming things that walk on fours shall be an abomination for you.

כ  כֹּל שֶׁרֶץ הָעוֹף הַהֹלֵךְ עַל־אַרְבַּע שֶׁקֶץ הוּא לָכֶם׃

21  But these you may eat among all the winged swarming things that walk on fours: all that have, above their feet, jointed legs to leap with on the ground

כא  אַךְ אֶת־זֶה תֹּאכְלוּ מִכֹּל שֶׁרֶץ הָעוֹף הַהֹלֵךְ עַל־אַרְבַּע אֲשֶׁר־לא [לוֹ] כְרָעַיִם מִמַּעַל לְרַגְלָיו לְנַתֵּר בָּהֵן עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃

22  of these you may eat the following: locusts of every variety; all varieties of bald locust; crickets of every variety; and all varieties of grasshopper.

כב  אֶת־אֵלֶּה מֵהֶם תֹּאכֵלוּ אֶת־הָאַרְבֶּה לְמִינוֹ וְאֶת־הַסָּלְעָם לְמִינֵהוּ וְאֶת־הַחַרְגֹּל לְמִינֵהוּ וְאֶת־הֶחָגָב לְמִינֵהוּ׃

23  But all other winged swarming things that have four legs shall be an abomination for you.

כג  וְכֹל שֶׁרֶץ הָעוֹף אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ אַרְבַּע רַגְלָיִם שֶׁקֶץ הוּא לָכֶם׃

24  And the following shall make you unclean—whoever touches their carcasses shall be unclean until evening,

כד  וּלְאֵלֶּה תִּטַּמָּאוּ כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּנִבְלָתָם יִטְמָא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃

25  and whoever carries the carcasses of any of them shall wash his clothes and be unclean until evening

כה  וְכָל־הַנֹּשֵׂא מִנִּבְלָתָם יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃

26  every animal that has true hoofs but without clefts through the hoofs, or that does not chew the cud. They are unclean for you; whoever touches them shall be unclean.

כו  לְכָל־הַבְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר הִוא מַפְרֶסֶת פַּרְסָה וְשֶׁסַע אֵינֶנָּה שֹׁסַעַת וְגֵרָה אֵינֶנָּה מַעֲלָה טְמֵאִים הֵם לָכֶם כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בָּהֶם יִטְמָא׃

27  Also all animals that walk on paws, among those that walk on fours, are unclean for you; whoever touches their carcasses shall be unclean until evening.

כז  וְכֹל הוֹלֵךְ עַל־כַּפָּיו בְּכָל־הַחַיָּה הַהֹלֶכֶת עַל־אַרְבַּע טְמֵאִים הֵם לָכֶם כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּנִבְלָתָם יִטְמָא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃

28  And anyone who carries their carcasses shall wash his clothes and remain unclean until evening. They are unclean for you.

כח  וְהַנֹּשֵׂא אֶת־נִבְלָתָם יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב טְמֵאִים הֵמָּה לָכֶם׃

29  The following shall be unclean for you from among the things that swarm on the earth: the mole, the mouse, and great lizards of every variety;

כט  וְזֶה לָכֶם הַטָּמֵא בַּשֶּׁרֶץ הַשֹּׁרֵץ עַל־הָאָרֶץ הַחֹלֶד וְהָעַכְבָּר וְהַצָּב לְמִינֵהוּ׃

30  the gecko, the land crocodile, the lizard, the sand lizard, and the Hameleon.

ל  וְהָאֲנָקָה וְהַכֹּחַ וְהַלְּטָאָה וְהַחֹמֶט וְהַתִּנְשָׁמֶת׃

31  Those are for you the unclean among all the swarming things; whoever touches them when they are dead shall be unclean until evening.

לא  אֵלֶּה הַטְּמֵאִים לָכֶם בְּכָל־הַשָּׁרֶץ כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בָּהֶם בְּמֹתָם יִטְמָא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃

32  And anything on which one of them falls when dead shall be unclean: be it any article of wood, or a cloth, or a skin, or a sack—any such article that can be put to use shall be dipped in water, and it shall remain unclean until evening; then it shall be clean.

לב  וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר־יִפֹּל־עָלָיו מֵהֶם בְּמֹתָם יִטְמָא מִכָּל־כְּלִי־עֵץ אוֹ בֶגֶד אוֹ־עוֹר אוֹ שָׂק כָּל־כְּלִי אֲשֶׁר־יֵעָשֶׂה מְלָאכָה בָּהֶם בַּמַּיִם יוּבָא וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעֶרֶב וְטָהֵר׃

33  And if any of those falls into an earthen vessel, everything inside it shall be unclean and [the vessel] itself you shall break.

לג  וְכָל־כְּלִי־חֶרֶשׂ אֲשֶׁר־יִפֹּל מֵהֶם אֶל־תּוֹכוֹ כֹּל אֲשֶׁר בְּתוֹכוֹ יִטְמָא וְאֹתוֹ תִשְׁבֹּרוּ׃

34  As to any food that may be eaten, it shall become unclean if it came in contact with water; as to any liquid that may be drunk, it shall become unclean if it was inside any vessel.

לד  מִכָּל־הָאֹכֶל אֲשֶׁר יֵאָכֵל אֲשֶׁר יָבוֹא עָלָיו מַיִם יִטְמָא וְכָל־מַשְׁקֶה אֲשֶׁר יִשָּׁתֶה בְּכָל־כְּלִי יִטְמָא׃

35  Everything on which the carcass of any of them falls shall be unclean: an oven or stove shall be smashed. They are unclean and unclean they shall remain for you.

לה  וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר־יִפֹּל מִנִּבְלָתָם עָלָיו יִטְמָא תַּנּוּר וְכִירַיִם יֻתָּץ טְמֵאִים הֵם וּטְמֵאִים יִהְיוּ לָכֶם׃

36  However, a spring or cistern in which water is collected shall be clean, but whoever touches such a carcass in it shall be unclean.

לו  אַךְ מַעְיָן וּבוֹר מִקְוֵה־מַיִם יִהְיֶה טָהוֹר וְנֹגֵעַ בְּנִבְלָתָם יִטְמָא׃

37  If such a carcass falls upon seed grain that is to be sown, it is clean;

לז  וְכִי יִפֹּל מִנִּבְלָתָם עַל־כָּל־זֶרַע זֵרוּעַ אֲשֶׁר יִזָּרֵעַ טָהוֹר הוּא׃

38  but if water is put on the seed and any part of a carcass falls upon it, it shall be unclean for you.

לח  וְכִי יֻתַּן־מַיִם עַל־זֶרַע וְנָפַל מִנִּבְלָתָם עָלָיו טָמֵא הוּא לָכֶם׃

39  If an animal that you may eat has died, anyone who touches its carcass shall be unclean until evening;

לט  וְכִי יָמוּת מִן־הַבְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר־הִיא לָכֶם לְאָכְלָה הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּנִבְלָתָהּ יִטְמָא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃

40  anyone who eats of its carcass shall wash his clothes and remain unclean until evening; and anyone who carries its carcass shall wash his clothes and remain unclean until evening.

מ  וְהָאֹכֵל מִנִּבְלָתָהּ יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב וְהַנֹּשֵׂא אֶת־נִבְלָתָהּ יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃

41  All the things that swarm upon the earth are an abomination; they shall not be eaten.

מא  וְכָל־הַשֶּׁרֶץ הַשֹּׁרֵץ עַל־הָאָרֶץ שֶׁקֶץ הוּא לֹא יֵאָכֵל׃

42  You shall not eat, among all things that swarm upon the earth, anything that crawls on its belly, or anything that walks on fours, or anything that has many legs; for they are an abomination.

מב  כֹּל הוֹלֵךְ עַל־גָּחוֹן וְכֹל הוֹלֵךְ עַל־אַרְבַּע עַד כָּל־מַרְבֵּה רַגְלַיִם לְכָל־הַשֶּׁרֶץ הַשֹּׁרֵץ עַל־הָאָרֶץ לֹא תֹאכְלוּם כִּי־שֶׁקֶץ הֵם׃

43  You shall not draw abomination upon yourselves through anything that swarms; you shall not make yourselves unclean therewith and thus become unclean.

מג  אַל־תְּשַׁקְּצוּ אֶת־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם בְּכָל־הַשֶּׁרֶץ הַשֹּׁרֵץ וְלֹא תִטַּמְּאוּ בָּהֶם וְנִטְמֵתֶם בָּם׃

44  For I Hashem am your God: you shall sanctify yourselves and be holy, for I am holy. You shall not make yourselves unclean through any swarming thing that moves upon the earth.

מד  כִּי אֲנִי יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וְהִתְקַדִּשְׁתֶּם וִהְיִיתֶם קְדֹשִׁים כִּי קָדוֹשׁ אָנִי וְלֹא תְטַמְּאוּ אֶת־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם בְּכָל־הַשֶּׁרֶץ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃

45  For I Hashem am He who brought you up from the land of Egypt to be your God: you shall be holy, for I am holy.

KEE a-NEE a-do-NAI ha-ma-a-LEH et-KHEM may-E-retz mitz-RA-yim lih-YOT la-KHEM lay-lo-HEEM vih-yee-TEM k’-do-SHEEM KEE ka-DOSH A-nee

מה  כִּי אֲנִי יְהֹוָה הַמַּעֲלֶה אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם לִהְיֹת לָכֶם לֵאלֹהִים וִהְיִיתֶם קְדֹשִׁים כִּי קָדוֹשׁ אָנִי׃

 11:45   You shall be holy, for I am holy

This verse appears towards the end of the description of the kosher dietary laws. God draws a clear connection between obeying the kosher laws and sustaining a status of holiness. The Bible instructs the Children of Israel to distinguish between things which may be eaten and things which are not to be eaten. In handing these requirements to the Jewish people, Hashem is requiring that they distinguish themselves from the other nations. They are charged with a great responsibility to live a holy life, to follow God’s commandments and to come as close as possible to the holiness of Hashem. Through observance of the kosher dietary laws, the People of Israel are meant to have a positive influence on the rest of the world.3 comments

46  These are the instructions concerning animals, birds, all living creatures that move in water, and all creatures that swarm on earth,

מו  זֹאת תּוֹרַת הַבְּהֵמָה וְהָעוֹף וְכֹל נֶפֶשׁ הַחַיָּה הָרֹמֶשֶׂת בַּמָּיִם וּלְכָל־נֶפֶשׁ הַשֹּׁרֶצֶת עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃

47  for distinguishing between the unclean and the clean, between the living things that may be eaten and the living things that may not be eaten.

מז  לְהַבְדִּיל בֵּין הַטָּמֵא וּבֵין הַטָּהֹר וּבֵין הַחַיָּה הַנֶּאֱכֶלֶת וּבֵין הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר לֹא תֵאָכֵל׃

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Leviticus 10
Leviticus 12

Comments ( 3 )

The comments below do not necessarily reflect the beliefs and opinions of The Israel Bible™.

  • Scribal marks in the Torah:
    *
    42 Whatsoever goeth upon the belly, and whatsoever goeth upon all four, or whatsoever hath more feet among all creeping things that creep upon the earth, them ye shall not eat; for they are an abomination.
    מב כֹּל הוֹלֵךְ עַל גָּחוֹן וְכֹל הוֹלֵךְ עַל אַרְבַּע עַד כָּל מַרְבֵּה רַגְלַיִם לְכָל הַשֶּׁרֶץ הַשֹּׁרֵץ עַל הָאָרֶץ לֹא תֹאכְלוּם כִּי שֶׁקֶץ הֵם.
    *
    This verse is found at the very middle of the Torah. This word “גָּחוֹן” contains the letter “vav” and it is written by the Scribes to extend below the line. (The text font here doesn’t show it like you’d find in a Torah scroll) That extended “vav” is affectionately known as “the belly button of the Torah”.
    *
    There are an equal number of letters in the Torah to the left and to the right of that “vav”. This was the final or “acid” test to see if the Scroll had been written properly. If the count was off, the Torah scroll was bad and should have been destroyed.
    *
    The Scribes were known as “those who count”.
    Baruch Hashem.

  • I finished my Torah study last night on this chapter. Thus the topic of clean and unclean animals was on my mind as I lay in my bed and meditated on what I had learned.
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    When I first learned about not eating unclean animals, I was living in Thailand where pork and all manner of unclean seafood is regularly consumed. It was a staple part of our diets and it was hard in the part of the land where I lived to find many other options. There was chicken but it was usually heavily fried in dirty oil and not healthy to eat. Beef was even more difficult to find as most low-end restaurants didn’t serve it. I went through a lot of mental “gymnastics” to learn how to eat according to the commandments given by Elohim.
    *
    As I lay there remembering all I had gone through, this one question came to the front of my thoughts and burned there like a beacon.
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    What if, there wasn’t really any particular reason for the animals that were on the clean and unclean list? What if, Elohim had just randomly selected what was clean and what was not, as a test – the test being — “Would we obey HIM?”
    *
    Baruch Hashem.

  • This winter, as I was watching a moose moving through our backyard, I noted the “hump” on its back and its curious way of walking. As I was considering it, I was reminded that a moose is an “ungulate” but I wasn’t sure what that meant. Where I live, moose are a major source of meat. I was a bit concerned that a moose might be on the list of unclean animals as the list doesn’t sort out every kind of animal there is on the planet.
    I also knew that a camel is an “ungulate”. It’s clear that we’re not to eat camels.
    I’ve since learned that an ungulate simply refers to a hooved animal.
    I’ve also learned that moose are considered the largest of the deer family.
    This is just one example of “living Torah” where we’re forced to stop and take a look at the things we’re doing and make sure we’re staying on “target”.
    Baruch Hashem.

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Leviticus 11

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