1 When King Adoni-zedek of Yerushalayim learned that Yehoshua had captured Ai and proscribed it, treating Ai and its king as he had treated Yericho and its king, and that, moreover, the people of Givon had come to terms with Yisrael and remained among them,
vai-HEE khish-MO-a a-do-nee TZE-dek ME-lekh y’-ru-sha-LA-yim kee la-KHAD y’-ho-SHU-a et ha-AI va-ya-kha-ree-MAH ka-a-SHER a-SAH lee-ree-KHO ul-mal-KAH kayn a-SAH la-AI ul-mal-KAH v’-KHEE hish-LEE-mu yo-sh’-VAY giv-ON et yis-ra-AYL va-yih-YU b’-kir-BAM
א וַיְהִי כִשְׁמֹעַ אֲדֹנִי־צֶדֶק מֶלֶךְ יְרוּשָׁלִַם כִּי־לָכַד יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶת־הָעַי וַיַּחֲרִימָהּ כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לִירִיחוֹ וּלְמַלְכָּהּ כֵּן־עָשָׂה לָעַי וּלְמַלְכָּהּ וְכִי הִשְׁלִימוּ יֹשְׁבֵי גִבְעוֹן אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּהְיוּ בְּקִרְבָּם׃
10:1 When King Adoni-zedek of Yerushalayim learned
This is the first mention of the name Yerushalayim in the Bible. King Adoni-zedek, like Melchizedek King of Shalem (Genesis 14:18), gets his name tzedek (צדק), ‘righteousness,’ because he resides in Yerushalayim, the city of righteousness, as it says “righteousness lodged in her” (Isaiah 1:21). Yerushayim is not only filled with righteousness, it even causes its residents to be righteous and just. Adoni-zedek uses this virtue to stand up for moral justice by attacking the Givonim who had violated the Canaanite pact not to surrender to the Israelites. The Ramban, in his commentary (Genesis 14:18), points out that from time immemorial, the nations of the world have recognized the uniqueness of Yerushalayim. Physically, Yerushalayim is in a prime location at the center of the country. Spiritually, they knew it is aligned with the heavenly Temple where God’s spirit dwells on high, and is the site He selected for the Beit Hamikdash.1 comment
5 The five Amorite kings—the king of Yerushalayim, the king of Chevron, the king of Yarmut, the king of Lachish, and the king of Eglon, with all their armies—joined forces and marched on Givon, and encamped against it and attacked it.
6 The people of Givon thereupon sent this message to Yehoshua in the camp at Gilgal: “Do not fail your servants; come up quickly and aid us and deliver us, for all the Amorite kings of the hill country have gathered against us.”
8 Hashem said to Yehoshua, “Do not be afraid of them, for I will deliver them into your hands; not one of them shall withstand you.”
ח וַיֹּאמֶר יְהֹוָה אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אַל־תִּירָא מֵהֶם כִּי בְיָדְךָ נְתַתִּים לֹא־יַעֲמֹד אִישׁ מֵהֶם בְּפָנֶיךָ׃
10 Hashem threw them into a panic before Yisrael: [Yehoshua] inflicted a crushing defeat on them at Givon, pursued them in the direction of the Beth-horon ascent, and harried them all the way to Azeika and Makkedah.
11 While they were fleeing before Yisrael down the descent from Beth-horon, Hashem hurled huge stones on them from the sky, all the way to Azeika, and they perished; more perished from the hailstones than were killed by the Israelite weapons.
12 On that occasion, when Hashem routed the Amorites before the Israelites, Yehoshua addressed Hashem; he said in the presence of the Israelites: “Stand still, O sun, at Givon, O moon, in the Valley of Aijalon!”
13 And the sun stood still And the moon halted, While a nation wreaked judgment on its foes —as is written in the Book of Jashar. Thus the sun halted in midheaven, and did not press on to set, for a whole day;
יג וַיִּדֹּם הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְיָרֵחַ עָמָד עַד־יִקֹּם גּוֹי אֹיְבָיו הֲלֹא־הִיא כְתוּבָה עַל־סֵפֶר הַיָּשָׁר וַיַּעֲמֹד הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ בַּחֲצִי הַשָּׁמַיִם וְלֹא־אָץ לָבוֹא כְּיוֹם תָּמִים׃
14 for Hashem fought for Yisrael. Neither before nor since has there ever been such a day, when Hashem acted on words spoken by a man.
16 Meanwhile, those five kings fled and hid in a cave at Makkedah.
18 Yehoshua ordered, “Roll large stones up against the mouth of the cave, and post men over it to keep guard over them.
19 But as for the rest of you, don’t stop, but press on the heels of your enemies and harass them from the rear. Don’t let them reach their towns, for Hashem your God has delivered them into your hands.”
יט וְאַתֶּם אַל־תַּעֲמֹדוּ רִדְפוּ אַחֲרֵי אֹיְבֵיכֶם וְזִנַּבְתֶּם אוֹתָם אַל־תִּתְּנוּם לָבוֹא אֶל־עָרֵיהֶם כִּי נְתָנָם יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם בְּיֶדְכֶם׃
20 When Yehoshua and the Israelites had finished dealing them a deadly blow, they were wiped out, except for some fugitives who escaped into the fortified towns.
22 And now Yehoshua ordered, “Open the mouth of the cave, and bring those five kings out of the cave to me.”
24 And when the kings were brought out to Yehoshua, Yehoshua summoned all the men of Yisrael and ordered the army officers who had accompanied him, “Come forward and place your feet on the necks of these kings.” They came forward and placed their feet on their necks.
כד וַיְהִי כְּהוֹצִיאָם אֶת־הַמְּלָכִים הָאֵלֶּה אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וַיִּקְרָא יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶל־כָּל־אִישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־קְצִינֵי אַנְשֵׁי הַמִּלְחָמָה הֶהָלְכוּא אִתּוֹ קִרְבוּ שִׂימוּ אֶת־רַגְלֵיכֶם עַל־צַוְּארֵי הַמְּלָכִים הָאֵלֶּה וַיִּקְרְבוּ וַיָּשִׂימוּ אֶת־רַגְלֵיהֶם עַל־צַוְּארֵיהֶם׃
25 Yehoshua said to them, “Do not be frightened or dismayed; be firm and resolute. For this is what Hashem is going to do to all the enemies with whom you are at war.”
כה וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵיהֶם יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אַל־תִּירְאוּ וְאַל־תֵּחָתּוּ חִזְקוּ וְאִמְצוּ כִּי כָכָה יַעֲשֶׂה יְהֹוָה לְכָל־אֹיְבֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם נִלְחָמִים אוֹתָם׃
26 After that, Yehoshua had them put to death and impaled on five stakes, and they remained impaled on the stakes until evening.
27 At sunset Yehoshua ordered them taken down from the poles and thrown into the cave in which they had hidden. Large stones were placed over the mouth of the cave, [and there they are] to this very day.
28 At that time Yehoshua captured Makkedah and put it and its king to the sword, proscribing it and every person in it and leaving none that escaped. And he treated the king of Makkedah as he had treated the king of Yericho.
35 They captured it on the same day and put it to the sword, proscribing all the people that were in it, as they had done to Lachish.
לה וַיִּלְכְּדוּהָ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא וַיַּכּוּהָ לְפִי־חֶרֶב וְאֵת כָּל־הַנֶּפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־בָּהּ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא הֶחֱרִים כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה לְלָכִישׁ׃
37 They captured it and put it, its king, and all its towns, and all the people that were in it, to the sword. He let none escape, proscribing it and all the people in it, just as he had done in the case of Eglon.
39 He captured it and its king and all its towns. They put them to the sword and proscribed all the people in it. They let none escape; just as they had done to Chevron, and as they had done to Libnah and its king, so they did to Debir and its king.
40 Thus Yehoshua conquered the whole country: the hill country, the Negev, the Shephelah, and the slopes, with all their kings; he let none escape, but proscribed everything that breathed—as Hashem, the God of Yisrael, had commanded.