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Joshua 10

1When King Adoni-zedek of Yerushalayim learned that Yehoshua had captured Ai and proscribed it, treating Ai and its king as he had treated Yericho and its king, and that, moreover, the people of Givon had come to terms with Yisrael and remained among them,

vai-HEE khish-MO-a a-do-nee TZE-dek ME-lekh y'-ru-sha-LA-yim kee la-KHAD y'-ho-SHU-a et ha-AI va-ya-kha-ree-MAH ka-a-SHER a-SAH lee-ree-KHO ul-mal-KAH kayn a-SAH la-AI ul-mal-KAH v'-KHEE hish-LEE-mu yo-sh'-VAY giv-ON et yis-ra-AYL va-yih-YU b'-kir-BAM

אוַיְהִי כִשְׁמֹעַ אֲדֹנִי־צֶדֶק מֶלֶךְ יְרוּשָׁלִַם כִּי־לָכַד יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶת־הָעַי וַיַּחֲרִימָהּ כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לִירִיחוֹ וּלְמַלְכָּהּ כֵּן־עָשָׂה לָעַי וּלְמַלְכָּהּ וְכִי הִשְׁלִימוּ יֹשְׁבֵי גִבְעוֹן אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּהְיוּ בְּקִרְבָּם׃

 10:1   When King Adoni-zedek of Yerushalayim learned

This is the first mention of the name Yerushalayim in the Bible.  King Adoni-zedek, like Melchizedek King of Shalem (Genesis 14:18), gets his name tzedek (צדק), ‘righteousness,’ because he resides in Yerushalayim, the city of righteousness, as it says “righteousness lodged in her” (Isaiah 1:21).  Yerushayim is not only filled with righteousness, it even causes its residents to be righteous and just.  Adoni-zedek uses this virtue to stand up for moral justice by attacking the Givonim who had violated the Canaanite pact not to surrender to the Israelites.  The Ramban, in his commentary (Genesis 14:18), points out that from time immemorial, the nations of the world have recognized the uniqueness of Yerushalayim.  Physically, Yerushalayim is in a prime location at the center of the country.  Spiritually, they knew it is aligned with the heavenly Temple where God’s spirit dwells on high, and is the site He selected for the Beit Hamikdash.

2he was very frightened. For Givon was a large city, like one of the royal cities—in fact, larger than Ai—and all its men were warriors.

בוַיִּירְאוּ מְאֹד כִּי עִיר גְּדוֹלָה גִּבְעוֹן כְּאַחַת עָרֵי הַמַּמְלָכָה וְכִי הִיא גְדוֹלָה מִן־הָעַי וְכָל־אֲנָשֶׁיהָ גִּבֹּרִים׃

3So King Adoni-zedek of Yerushalayim sent this message to King Hoham of Chevron, King Piram of Yarmut, King Japhia of Lachish, and King Debir of Eglon:

גוַיִּשְׁלַח אֲדֹנִי־צֶדֶק מֶלֶךְ יְרוּשָׁלִַם אֶל־הוֹהָם מֶלֶךְ־חֶבְרוֹן וְאֶל־פִּרְאָם מֶלֶךְ־יַרְמוּת וְאֶל־יָפִיעַ מֶלֶךְ־לָכִישׁ וְאֶל־דְּבִיר מֶלֶךְ־עֶגְלוֹן לֵאמֹר׃

4“Come up and help me defeat Givon; for it has come to terms with Yehoshua and the Israelites.”

דעֲלוּ־אֵלַי וְעִזְרֻנִי וְנַכֶּה אֶת־גִּבְעוֹן כִּי־הִשְׁלִימָה אֶת־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וְאֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃

5The five Amorite kings—the king of Yerushalayim, the king of Chevron, the king of Yarmut, the king of Lachish, and the king of Eglon, with all their armies—joined forces and marched on Givon, and encamped against it and attacked it.

הוַיֵּאָסְפוּ וַיַּעֲלוּ חֲמֵשֶׁת מַלְכֵי הָאֱמֹרִי מֶלֶךְ יְרוּשָׁלִַם מֶלֶךְ־חֶבְרוֹן מֶלֶךְ־יַרְמוּת מֶלֶךְ־לָכִישׁ מֶלֶךְ־עֶגְלוֹן הֵם וְכָל־מַחֲנֵיהֶם וַיַּחֲנוּ עַל־גִּבְעוֹן וַיִּלָּחֲמוּ עָלֶיהָ׃

6The people of Givon thereupon sent this message to Yehoshua in the camp at Gilgal: “Do not fail your servants; come up quickly and aid us and deliver us, for all the Amorite kings of the hill country have gathered against us.”

ווַיִּשְׁלְחוּ אַנְשֵׁי גִבְעוֹן אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶל־הַמַּחֲנֶה הַגִּלְגָּלָה לֵאמֹר אַל־תֶּרֶף יָדֶיךָ מֵעֲבָדֶיךָ עֲלֵה אֵלֵינוּ מְהֵרָה וְהוֹשִׁיעָה לָּנוּ וְעָזְרֵנוּ כִּי נִקְבְּצוּ אֵלֵינוּ כָּל־מַלְכֵי הָאֱמֹרִי יֹשְׁבֵי הָהָר׃

7So Yehoshua marched up from Gilgal with his whole fighting force, all the trained warriors.

זוַיַּעַל יְהוֹשֻׁעַ מִן־הַגִּלְגָּל הוּא וְכָל־עַם הַמִּלְחָמָה עִמּוֹ וְכֹל גִּבּוֹרֵי הֶחָיִל׃

8Hashem said to Yehoshua, “Do not be afraid of them, for I will deliver them into your hands; not one of them shall withstand you.”

חוַיֹּאמֶר יְהֹוָה אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אַל־תִּירָא מֵהֶם כִּי בְיָדְךָ נְתַתִּים לֹא־יַעֲמֹד אִישׁ מֵהֶם בְּפָנֶיךָ׃

9Yehoshua took them by surprise, marching all night from Gilgal.

טוַיָּבֹא אֲלֵיהֶם יְהוֹשֻׁעַ פִּתְאֹם כָּל־הַלַּיְלָה עָלָה מִן־הַגִּלְגָּל׃

10Hashem threw them into a panic before Yisrael: [Yehoshua] inflicted a crushing defeat on them at Givon, pursued them in the direction of the Beth-horon ascent, and harried them all the way to Azeika and Makkedah.

יוַיְהֻמֵּם יְהֹוָה לִפְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּכֵּם מַכָּה־גְדוֹלָה בְּגִבְעוֹן וַיִּרְדְּפֵם דֶּרֶךְ מַעֲלֵה בֵית־חוֹרֹן וַיַּכֵּם עַד־עֲזֵקָה וְעַד־מַקֵּדָה׃

11While they were fleeing before Yisrael down the descent from Beth-horon, Hashem hurled huge stones on them from the sky, all the way to Azeika, and they perished; more perished from the hailstones than were killed by the Israelite weapons.

יאוַיְהִי בְּנֻסָם מִפְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הֵם בְּמוֹרַד בֵּית־חוֹרֹן וַיהֹוָה הִשְׁלִיךְ עֲלֵיהֶם אֲבָנִים גְּדֹלוֹת מִן־הַשָּׁמַיִם עַד־עֲזֵקָה וַיָּמֻתוּ רַבִּים אֲשֶׁר־מֵתוּ בְּאַבְנֵי הַבָּרָד מֵאֲשֶׁר הָרְגוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בֶּחָרֶב׃

12On that occasion, when Hashem routed the Amorites before the Israelites, Yehoshua addressed Hashem; he said in the presence of the Israelites: “Stand still, O sun, at Givon, O moon, in the Valley of Aijalon!”

יבאָז יְדַבֵּר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ לַיהֹוָה בְּיוֹם תֵּת יְהֹוָה אֶת־הָאֱמֹרִי לִפְנֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֹּאמֶר לְעֵינֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁמֶשׁ בְּגִבְעוֹן דּוֹם וְיָרֵחַ בְּעֵמֶק אַיָּלוֹן׃

13And the sun stood still And the moon halted, While a nation wreaked judgment on its foes —as is written in the Book of Jashar. Thus the sun halted in midheaven, and did not press on to set, for a whole day;

יגוַיִּדֹּם הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְיָרֵחַ עָמָד עַד־יִקֹּם גּוֹי אֹיְבָיו הֲלֹא־הִיא כְתוּבָה עַל־סֵפֶר הַיָּשָׁר וַיַּעֲמֹד הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ בַּחֲצִי הַשָּׁמַיִם וְלֹא־אָץ לָבוֹא כְּיוֹם תָּמִים׃

14for Hashem fought for Yisrael. Neither before nor since has there ever been such a day, when Hashem acted on words spoken by a man.

ידוְלֹא הָיָה כַּיּוֹם הַהוּא לְפָנָיו וְאַחֲרָיו לִשְׁמֹעַ יְהֹוָה בְּקוֹל אִישׁ כִּי יְהֹוָה נִלְחָם לְיִשְׂרָאֵל׃

15Then Yehoshua together with all Yisrael returned to the camp at Gilgal.

טווַיָּשָׁב יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל עִמּוֹ אֶל־הַמַּחֲנֶה הַגִּלְגָּלָה׃

16Meanwhile, those five kings fled and hid in a cave at Makkedah.

טזוַיָּנֻסוּ חֲמֵשֶׁת הַמְּלָכִים הָאֵלֶּה וַיֵּחָבְאוּ בַמְּעָרָה בְּמַקֵּדָה׃

17When it was reported to Yehoshua that the five kings had been found hiding in a cave at Makkedah,

יזוַיֻּגַּד לִיהוֹשֻׁעַ לֵאמֹר נִמְצְאוּ חֲמֵשֶׁת הַמְּלָכִים נֶחְבְּאִים בַּמְּעָרָה בְּמַקֵּדָה׃

18Yehoshua ordered, “Roll large stones up against the mouth of the cave, and post men over it to keep guard over them.

יחוַיֹּאמֶר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ גֹּלּוּ אֲבָנִים גְּדֹלוֹת אֶל־פִּי הַמְּעָרָה וְהַפְקִידוּ עָלֶיהָ אֲנָשִׁים לְשָׁמְרָם׃

19But as for the rest of you, don't stop, but press on the heels of your enemies and harass them from the rear. Don't let them reach their towns, for Hashem your God has delivered them into your hands.”

יטוְאַתֶּם אַל־תַּעֲמֹדוּ רִדְפוּ אַחֲרֵי אֹיְבֵיכֶם וְזִנַּבְתֶּם אוֹתָם אַל־תִּתְּנוּם לָבוֹא אֶל־עָרֵיהֶם כִּי נְתָנָם יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם בְּיֶדְכֶם׃

20When Yehoshua and the Israelites had finished dealing them a deadly blow, they were wiped out, except for some fugitives who escaped into the fortified towns.

כוַיְהִי כְּכַלּוֹת יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לְהַכּוֹתָם מַכָּה גְדוֹלָה־מְאֹד עַד־תֻּמָּם וְהַשְּׂרִידִים שָׂרְדוּ מֵהֶם וַיָּבֹאוּ אֶל־עָרֵי הַמִּבְצָר׃

21The whole army returned in safety to Yehoshua in the camp at Makkedah; no one so much as snarled at the Israelites.

כאוַיָּשֻׁבוּ כָל־הָעָם אֶל־הַמַּחֲנֶה אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ מַקֵּדָה בְּשָׁלוֹם לֹא־חָרַץ לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לְאִישׁ אֶת־לְשֹׁנוֹ׃

22And now Yehoshua ordered, “Open the mouth of the cave, and bring those five kings out of the cave to me.”

כבוַיֹּאמֶר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ פִּתְחוּ אֶת־פִּי הַמְּעָרָה וְהוֹצִיאוּ אֵלַי אֶת־חֲמֵשֶׁת הַמְּלָכִים הָאֵלֶּה מִן־הַמְּעָרָה׃

23This was done. Those five kings—the king of Yerushalayim, the king of Chevron, the king of Yarmut, the king of Lachish, and the king of Eglon—were brought out to him from the cave.

כגוַיַּעֲשׂוּ כֵן וַיֹּצִיאוּ אֵלָיו אֶת־חֲמֵשֶׁת הַמְּלָכִים הָאֵלֶּה מִן־הַמְּעָרָה אֵת מֶלֶךְ יְרוּשָׁלִַם אֶת־מֶלֶךְ חֶבְרוֹן אֶת־מֶלֶךְ יַרְמוּת אֶת־מֶלֶךְ לָכִישׁ אֶת־מֶלֶךְ עֶגְלוֹן׃

24And when the kings were brought out to Yehoshua, Yehoshua summoned all the men of Yisrael and ordered the army officers who had accompanied him, “Come forward and place your feet on the necks of these kings.” They came forward and placed their feet on their necks.

כדוַיְהִי כְּהוֹצִיאָם אֶת־הַמְּלָכִים הָאֵלֶּה אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וַיִּקְרָא יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶל־כָּל־אִישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־קְצִינֵי אַנְשֵׁי הַמִּלְחָמָה הֶהָלְכוּא אִתּוֹ קִרְבוּ שִׂימוּ אֶת־רַגְלֵיכֶם עַל־צַוְּארֵי הַמְּלָכִים הָאֵלֶּה וַיִּקְרְבוּ וַיָּשִׂימוּ אֶת־רַגְלֵיהֶם עַל־צַוְּארֵיהֶם׃

25Yehoshua said to them, “Do not be frightened or dismayed; be firm and resolute. For this is what Hashem is going to do to all the enemies with whom you are at war.”

כהוַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵיהֶם יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אַל־תִּירְאוּ וְאַל־תֵּחָתּוּ חִזְקוּ וְאִמְצוּ כִּי כָכָה יַעֲשֶׂה יְהֹוָה לְכָל־אֹיְבֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם נִלְחָמִים אוֹתָם׃

26After that, Yehoshua had them put to death and impaled on five stakes, and they remained impaled on the stakes until evening.

כווַיַּכֵּם יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אַחֲרֵי־כֵן וַיְמִיתֵם וַיִּתְלֵם עַל חֲמִשָּׁה עֵצִים וַיִּהְיוּ תְּלוּיִם עַל־הָעֵצִים עַד־הָעָרֶב׃

27At sunset Yehoshua ordered them taken down from the poles and thrown into the cave in which they had hidden. Large stones were placed over the mouth of the cave, [and there they are] to this very day.

כזוַיְהִי לְעֵת בּוֹא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ צִוָּה יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וַיֹּרִידוּם מֵעַל הָעֵצִים וַיַּשְׁלִכֻם אֶל־הַמְּעָרָה אֲשֶׁר נֶחְבְּאוּ־שָׁם וַיָּשִׂמוּ אֲבָנִים גְּדֹלוֹת עַל־פִּי הַמְּעָרָה עַד־עֶצֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃

28At that time Yehoshua captured Makkedah and put it and its king to the sword, proscribing it and every person in it and leaving none that escaped. And he treated the king of Makkedah as he had treated the king of Yericho.

כחוְאֶת־מַקֵּדָה לָכַד יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא וַיַּכֶּהָ לְפִי־חֶרֶב וְאֶת־מַלְכָּהּ הֶחֱרִם אוֹתָם וְאֶת־כָּל־הַנֶּפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־בָּהּ לֹא הִשְׁאִיר שָׂרִיד וַיַּעַשׂ לְמֶלֶךְ מַקֵּדָה כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לְמֶלֶךְ יְרִיחוֹ׃

29From Makkedah, Yehoshua proceeded with all Yisrael to Libnah, and he attacked it.

כטוַיַּעֲבֹר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל עִמּוֹ מִמַּקֵּדָה לִבְנָה וַיִּלָּחֶם עִם־לִבְנָה׃

30Hashem delivered it and its king into the hands of Yisrael; they put it and all the people in it to the sword, letting none escape. And he treated its king as he had treated the king of Yericho.

לוַיִּתֵּן יְהֹוָה גַּם־אוֹתָהּ בְּיַד יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־מַלְכָּהּ וַיַּכֶּהָ לְפִי־חֶרֶב וְאֶת־כָּל־הַנֶּפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־בָּהּ לֹא־הִשְׁאִיר בָּהּ שָׂרִיד וַיַּעַשׂ לְמַלְכָּהּ כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לְמֶלֶךְ יְרִיחוֹ׃

31From Libnah, Yehoshua proceeded with all Yisrael to Lachish; he encamped against it and attacked it.

לאוַיַּעֲבֹר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל עִמּוֹ מִלִּבְנָה לָכִישָׁה וַיִּחַן עָלֶיהָ וַיִּלָּחֶם בָּהּ׃

32Hashem delivered Lachish into the hands of Yisrael. They captured it on the second day and put it and all the people in it to the sword, just as they had done to Libnah.

לבוַיִּתֵּן יְהֹוָה אֶת־לָכִישׁ בְּיַד יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּלְכְּדָהּ בַּיּוֹם הַשֵּׁנִי וַיַּכֶּהָ לְפִי־חֶרֶב וְאֶת־כָּל־הַנֶּפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־בָּהּ כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה לְלִבְנָה׃

33At that time King Horam of Gezer marched to the help of Lachish; but Yehoshua defeated him and his army, letting none of them escape.

לגאָז עָלָה הֹרָם מֶלֶךְ גֶּזֶר לַעְזֹר אֶת־לָכִישׁ וַיַּכֵּהוּ יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וְאֶת־עַמּוֹ עַד־בִּלְתִּי הִשְׁאִיר־לוֹ שָׂרִיד׃

34From Lachish, Yehoshua proceeded with all Yisrael to Eglon; they encamped against it and attacked it.

לדוַיַּעֲבֹר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל עִמּוֹ מִלָּכִישׁ עֶגְלֹנָה וַיַּחֲנוּ עָלֶיהָ וַיִּלָּחֲמוּ עָלֶיהָ׃

35They captured it on the same day and put it to the sword, proscribing all the people that were in it, as they had done to Lachish.

להוַיִּלְכְּדוּהָ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא וַיַּכּוּהָ לְפִי־חֶרֶב וְאֵת כָּל־הַנֶּפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־בָּהּ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא הֶחֱרִים כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה לְלָכִישׁ׃

36From Eglon, Yehoshua marched with all Yisrael to Chevron and attacked it.

לווַיַּעַל יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל עִמּוֹ מֵעֶגְלוֹנָה חֶבְרוֹנָה וַיִּלָּחֲמוּ עָלֶיהָ׃

37They captured it and put it, its king, and all its towns, and all the people that were in it, to the sword. He let none escape, proscribing it and all the people in it, just as he had done in the case of Eglon.

לזוַיִּלְכְּדוּהָ וַיַּכּוּהָ־לְפִי־חֶרֶב וְאֶת־מַלְכָּהּ וְאֶת־כָּל־עָרֶיהָ וְאֶת־כָּל־הַנֶּפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־בָּהּ לֹא־הִשְׁאִיר שָׂרִיד כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה לְעֶגְלוֹן וַיַּחֲרֵם אוֹתָהּ וְאֶת־כָּל־הַנֶּפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־בָּהּ׃

38Yehoshua and all Yisrael with him then turned back to Debir and attacked it.

לחוַיָּשָׁב יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל עִמּוֹ דְּבִרָה וַיִּלָּחֶם עָלֶיהָ׃

39He captured it and its king and all its towns. They put them to the sword and proscribed all the people in it. They let none escape; just as they had done to Chevron, and as they had done to Libnah and its king, so they did to Debir and its king.

לטוַיִּלְכְּדָהּ וְאֶת־מַלְכָּהּ וְאֶת־כָּל־עָרֶיהָ וַיַּכּוּם לְפִי־חֶרֶב וַיַּחֲרִימוּ אֶת־כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־בָּהּ לֹא הִשְׁאִיר שָׂרִיד כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לְחֶבְרוֹן כֵּן־עָשָׂה לִדְבִרָה וּלְמַלְכָּהּ וְכַאֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לְלִבְנָה וּלְמַלְכָּהּ׃

40Thus Yehoshua conquered the whole country: the hill country, the Negev, the Shephelah, and the slopes, with all their kings; he let none escape, but proscribed everything that breathed—as Hashem, the God of Yisrael, had commanded.

מוַיַּכֶּה יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶת־כָּל־הָאָרֶץ הָהָר וְהַנֶּגֶב וְהַשְּׁפֵלָה וְהָאֲשֵׁדוֹת וְאֵת כָּל־מַלְכֵיהֶם לֹא הִשְׁאִיר שָׂרִיד וְאֵת כָּל־הַנְּשָׁמָה הֶחֱרִים כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃

41Yehoshua conquered them from Kadesh-barnea to Azza, all the land of Goshen, and up to Givon.

מאוַיַּכֵּם יְהוֹשֻׁעַ מִקָּדֵשׁ בַּרְנֵעַ וְעַד־עַזָּה וְאֵת כָּל־אֶרֶץ גֹּשֶׁן וְעַד־גִּבְעוֹן׃

42All those kings and their lands were conquered by Yehoshua at a single stroke, for Hashem, the God of Yisrael, fought for Yisrael.

מבוְאֵת כָּל־הַמְּלָכִים הָאֵלֶּה וְאֶת־אַרְצָם לָכַד יְהוֹשֻׁעַ פַּעַם אֶחָת כִּי יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל נִלְחָם לְיִשְׂרָאֵל׃

43Then Yehoshua, with all Yisrael, returned to the camp at Gilgal.

מגוַיָּשָׁב יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל עִמּוֹ אֶל־הַמַּחֲנֶה הַגִּלְגָּלָה׃