TORAH
FIVE BOOKS OF MOSES
NEVI'IM
PROPHETS
KETUVIM
WRITINGS

Psalms 78

1A maskil of Asaf. Give ear, my people, to my teaching, turn your ear to what I say.

אמַשְׂכִּיל לְאָסָף הַאֲזִינָה עַמִּי תּוֹרָתִי הַטּוּ אָזְנְכֶם לְאִמְרֵי־פִי׃

2I will expound a theme, hold forth on the lessons of the past,

באֶפְתְּחָה בְמָשָׁל פִּי אַבִּיעָה חִידוֹת מִנִּי־קֶדֶם׃

3things we have heard and known, that our fathers have told us.

גאֲשֶׁר שָׁמַעְנוּ וַנֵּדָעֵם וַאֲבוֹתֵינוּ סִפְּרוּ־לָנוּ׃

4We will not withhold them from their children, telling the coming generation the praises of Hashem and His might, and the wonders He performed.

דלֹא נְכַחֵד מִבְּנֵיהֶם לְדוֹר אַחֲרוֹן מְסַפְּרִים תְּהִלּוֹת יְהֹוָה וֶעֱזוּזוֹ וְנִפְלְאוֹתָיו אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה׃

5He established a decree in Yaakov, ordained a teaching in Yisrael, charging our fathers to make them known to their children,

הוַיָּקֶם עֵדוּת בְּיַעֲקֹב וְתוֹרָה שָׂם בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה אֶת־אֲבוֹתֵינוּ לְהוֹדִיעָם לִבְנֵיהֶם׃

6that a future generation might know —children yet to be born— and in turn tell their children

ולְמַעַן יֵדְעוּ דּוֹר אַחֲרוֹן בָּנִים יִוָּלֵדוּ יָקֻמוּ וִיסַפְּרוּ לִבְנֵיהֶם׃

7that they might put their confidence in Hashem, and not forget Hashem's great deeds, but observe His commandments,

זוְיָשִׂימוּ בֵאלֹהִים כִּסְלָם וְלֹא יִשְׁכְּחוּ מַעַלְלֵי־אֵל וּמִצְוׂתָיו יִנְצֹרוּ׃

8and not be like their fathers, a wayward and defiant generation, a generation whose heart was inconstant, whose spirit was not true to Hashem.

חוְלֹא יִהְיוּ כַּאֲבוֹתָם דּוֹר סוֹרֵר וּמֹרֶה דּוֹר לֹא־הֵכִין לִבּוֹ וְלֹא־נֶאֶמְנָה אֶת־אֵל רוּחוֹ׃

9Like the Ephraimite bowmen who played false in the day of battle,

טבְּנֵי־אֶפְרַיִם נוֹשְׁקֵי רוֹמֵי־קָשֶׁת הָפְכוּ בְּיוֹם קְרָב׃

10they did not keep Hashem's covenant, they refused to follow His instruction;

ילֹא שָׁמְרוּ בְּרִית אֱלֹהִים וּבְתוֹרָתוֹ מֵאֲנוּ לָלֶכֶת׃

11they forgot His deeds and the wonders that He showed them.

יאוַיִּשְׁכְּחוּ עֲלִילוֹתָיו וְנִפְלְאוֹתָיו אֲשֶׁר הֶרְאָם׃

12He performed marvels in the sight of their fathers, in the land of Egypt, the plain of Zoan.

יבנֶגֶד אֲבוֹתָם עָשָׂה פֶלֶא בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם שְׂדֵה־צֹעַן׃

13He split the sea and took them through it; He made the waters stand like a wall.

יגבָּקַע יָם וַיַּעֲבִירֵם וַיַּצֶּב־מַיִם כְּמוֹ־נֵד׃

14He led them with a cloud by day, and throughout the night by the light of fire.

ידוַיַּנְחֵם בֶּעָנָן יוֹמָם וְכָל־הַלַּיְלָה בְּאוֹר אֵשׁ׃

15He split rocks in the wilderness and gave them drink as if from the great deep.

טויְבַקַּע צֻרִים בַּמִּדְבָּר וַיַּשְׁקְ כִּתְהֹמוֹת רַבָּה׃

16He brought forth streams from a rock and made them flow down like a river.

טזוַיּוֹצִא נוֹזְלִים מִסָּלַע וַיּוֹרֶד כַּנְּהָרוֹת מָיִם׃

17But they went on sinning against Him, defying the Most High in the parched land.

יזוַיּוֹסִיפוּ עוֹד לַחֲטֹא־לוֹ לַמְרוֹת עֶלְיוֹן בַּצִּיָּה׃

18To test Hashem was in their mind when they demanded food for themselves.

יחוַיְנַסּוּ־אֵל בִּלְבָבָם לִשְׁאָל־אֹכֶל לְנַפְשָׁם׃

19They spoke against Hashem, saying, “Can Hashem spread a feast in the wilderness?

יטוַיְדַבְּרוּ בֵּאלֹהִים אָמְרוּ הֲיוּכַל אֵל לַעֲרֹךְ שֻׁלְחָן בַּמִּדְבָּר׃

20True, He struck the rock and waters flowed, streams gushed forth; but can He provide bread? Can He supply His people with meat?”

כהֵן הִכָּה־צוּר וַיָּזוּבוּ מַיִם וּנְחָלִים יִשְׁטֹפוּ הֲגַם־לֶחֶם יוּכַל תֵּת אִם־יָכִין שְׁאֵר לְעַמּוֹ׃

21Hashem heard and He raged; fire broke out against Yaakov, anger flared up at Yisrael,

כאלָכֵן שָׁמַע יְהֹוָה וַיִּתְעַבָּר וְאֵשׁ נִשְּׂקָה בְיַעֲקֹב וְגַם־אַף עָלָה בְיִשְׂרָאֵל׃

22because they did not put their trust in Hashem, did not rely on His deliverance.

כבכִּי לֹא הֶאֱמִינוּ בֵּאלֹהִים וְלֹא בָטְחוּ בִּישׁוּעָתוֹ׃

23So He commanded the skies above, He opened the doors of heaven

כגוַיְצַו שְׁחָקִים מִמָּעַל וְדַלְתֵי שָׁמַיִם פָּתָח׃

24and rained manna upon them for food, giving them heavenly grain.

כדוַיַּמְטֵר עֲלֵיהֶם מָן לֶאֱכֹל וּדְגַן־שָׁמַיִם נָתַן לָמוֹ׃

25Each man ate a hero's meal; He sent them provision in plenty.

כהלֶחֶם אַבִּירִים אָכַל אִישׁ צֵידָה שָׁלַח לָהֶם לָשֹׂבַע׃

26He set the east wind moving in heaven, and drove the south wind by His might.

כויַסַּע קָדִים בַּשָּׁמָיִם וַיְנַהֵג בְּעֻזּוֹ תֵימָן׃

27He rained meat on them like dust, winged birds like the sands of the sea,

כזוַיַּמְטֵר עֲלֵיהֶם כֶּעָפָר שְׁאֵר וּכְחוֹל יַמִּים עוֹף כָּנָף׃

28making them come down inside His camp, around His dwelling-place.

כחוַיַּפֵּל בְּקֶרֶב מַחֲנֵהוּ סָבִיב לְמִשְׁכְּנֹתָיו׃

29They ate till they were sated; He gave them what they craved.

כטוַיֹּאכְלוּ וַיִּשְׂבְּעוּ מְאֹד וְתַאֲוָתָם יָבִא לָהֶם׃

30They had not yet wearied of what they craved, the food was still in their mouths

ללֹא־זָרוּ מִתַּאֲוָתָם עוֹד אָכְלָם בְּפִיהֶם׃

31when Hashem's anger flared up at them. He slew their sturdiest, struck down the youth of Yisrael.

לאוְאַף אֱלֹהִים עָלָה בָהֶם וַיַּהֲרֹג בְּמִשְׁמַנֵּיהֶם וּבַחוּרֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הִכְרִיעַ׃

32Nonetheless, they went on sinning and had no faith in His wonders.

לבבְּכָל־זֹאת חָטְאוּ־עוֹד וְלֹא־הֶאֱמִינוּ בְּנִפְלְאוֹתָיו׃

33He made their days end in futility, their years in sudden death.

לגוַיְכַל־בַּהֶבֶל יְמֵיהֶם וּשְׁנוֹתָם בַּבֶּהָלָה׃

34When He struck them, they turned to Him and sought Hashem once again.

לדאִם־הֲרָגָם וּדְרָשׁוּהוּ וְשָׁבוּ וְשִׁחֲרוּ־אֵל׃

35They remembered that Hashem was their rock, Hashem Most High, their Redeemer.

להוַיִּזְכְּרוּ כִּי־אֱלֹהִים צוּרָם וְאֵל עֶלְיוֹן גֹּאֲלָם׃

36Yet they deceived Him with their speech, lied to Him with their words;

לווַיְפַתּוּהוּ בְּפִיהֶם וּבִלְשׁוֹנָם יְכַזְּבוּ־לוֹ׃

37their hearts were inconstant toward Him; they were untrue to His covenant.

לזוְלִבָּם לֹא־נָכוֹן עִמּוֹ וְלֹא נֶאֶמְנוּ בִּבְרִיתוֹ׃

38But He, being merciful, forgave iniquity and would not destroy; He restrained His wrath time and again and did not give full vent to His fury;

לחוְהוּא רַחוּם יְכַפֵּר עָוׂן וְלֹא־יַשְׁחִית וְהִרְבָּה לְהָשִׁיב אַפּוֹ וְלֹא־יָעִיר כָּל־חֲמָתוֹ׃

39for He remembered that they were but flesh, a passing breath that does not return.

לטוַיִּזְכֹּר כִּי־בָשָׂר הֵמָּה רוּחַ הוֹלֵךְ וְלֹא יָשׁוּב׃

40How often did they defy Him in the wilderness, did they grieve Him in the wasteland!

מכַּמָּה יַמְרוּהוּ בַמִּדְבָּר יַעֲצִיבוּהוּ בִּישִׁימוֹן׃

41Again and again they tested Hashem, vexed the Holy One of Yisrael.

מאוַיָּשׁוּבוּ וַיְנַסּוּ אֵל וּקְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל הִתְווּ׃

42They did not remember His strength, or the day He redeemed them from the foe;

מבלֹא־זָכְרוּ אֶת־יָדוֹ יוֹם אֲ‍שֶׁר־פָּדָם מִנִּי־צָר׃

43how He displayed His signs in Egypt, His wonders in the plain of Zoan.

מגאֲשֶׁר־שָׂם בְּמִצְרַיִם אֹתוֹתָיו וּמוֹפְתָיו בִּשְׂדֵה־צֹעַן׃

44He turned their rivers into blood; He made their waters undrinkable.

מדוַיַּהֲפֹךְ לְדָם יְאֹרֵיהֶם וְנֹזְלֵיהֶם בַּל־יִשְׁתָּיוּן׃

45He inflicted upon them swarms of insects to devour them, frogs to destroy them.

מהיְשַׁלַּח בָּהֶם עָרֹב וַיֹּאכְלֵם וּצְפַרְדֵּעַ וַתַּשְׁחִיתֵם׃

46He gave their crops over to grubs, their produce to locusts.

מווַיִּתֵּן לֶחָסִיל יְבוּלָם וִיגִיעָם לָאַרְבֶּה׃

47He killed their vines with hail, their sycamores with frost.

מזיַהֲרֹג בַּבָּרָד גַּפְנָם וְשִׁקְמוֹתָם בַּחֲנָמַל׃

48He gave their beasts over to hail, their cattle to lightning bolts.

מחוַיַּסְגֵּר לַבָּרָד בְּעִירָם וּמִקְנֵיהֶם לָרְשָׁפִים׃

49He inflicted His burning anger upon them, wrath, indignation, trouble, a band of deadly messengers.

מטיְשַׁלַּח־בָּם חֲרוֹן אַפּוֹ עֶבְרָה וָזַעַם וְצָרָה מִשְׁלַחַת מַלְאֲכֵי רָעִים׃

50He cleared a path for His anger; He did not stop short of slaying them, but gave them over to pestilence.

ניְפַלֵּס נָתִיב לְאַפּוֹ לֹא־חָשַׂךְ מִמָּוֶת נַפְשָׁם וְחַיָּתָם לַדֶּבֶר הִסְגִּיר׃

51He struck every first-born in Egypt, the first fruits of their vigor in the tents of Ham.

נאוַיַּךְ כָּל־בְּכוֹר בְּמִצְרָיִם רֵאשִׁית אוֹנִים בְּאָהֳלֵי־חָם׃

52He set His people moving like sheep, drove them like a flock in the wilderness.

נבוַיַּסַּע כַּצֹּאן עַמּוֹ וַיְנַהֲגֵם כַּעֵדֶר בַּמִּדְבָּר׃

53He led them in safety; they were unafraid; as for their enemies, the sea covered them.

נגוַיַּנְחֵם לָבֶטַח וְלֹא פָחָדוּ וְאֶת־אוֹיְבֵיהֶם כִּסָּה הַיָּם׃

54He brought them to His holy realm the mountain His right hand had acquired.

נדוַיְבִיאֵם אֶל־גְּבוּל קָדְשׁוֹ הַר־זֶה קָנְתָה יְמִינוֹ׃

55He expelled nations before them, settled the tribes of Yisrael in their tents, allotting them their portion by the line.*

נהוַיְגָרֶשׁ מִפְּנֵיהֶם גּוֹיִם וַיַּפִּילֵם בְּחֶבֶל נַחֲלָה וַיַּשְׁכֵּן בְּאָהֳלֵיהֶם שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃

56Yet they defiantly tested Hashem Most High, and did not observe His decrees.

נווַיְנַסּוּ וַיַּמְרוּ אֶת־אֱלֹהִים עֶלְיוֹן וְעֵדוֹתָיו לֹא שָׁמָרוּ׃

57They fell away, disloyal like their fathers; they played false like a treacherous bow.

נזוַיִּסֹּגוּ וַיִּבְגְּדוּ כַּאֲבוֹתָם נֶהְפְּכוּ כְּקֶשֶׁת רְמִיָּה׃

58They vexed Him with their high places; they incensed Him with their idols.

נחוַיַּכְעִיסוּהוּ בְּבָמוֹתָם וּבִפְסִילֵיהֶם יַקְנִיאוּהוּ׃

59Hashem heard it and was enraged; He utterly rejected Yisrael.

נטשָׁמַע אֱלֹהִים וַיִּתְעַבָּר וַיִּמְאַס מְאֹד בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל׃

60He forsook the Mishkan of Shilo, the tent He had set among men.

va-yi-TOSH mish-KAN shi-LO O-hel shi-KAYN ba-a-DAM

סוַיִּטֹּשׁ מִשְׁכַּן שִׁלוֹ אֹהֶל שִׁכֵּן בָּאָדָם׃

78:60   The Mishkan of Shilo

Psalm 78 rebukes the Nation of Israel with a history lesson. The psalmist reminds his audience about the days of old, to exhort them to follow Hashem’s commandments. Much of the psalm is dedicated to the plight of the Israelites in exile during the period of servitude in Egypt and afterwards in the desert. The rebuke continues with the period after Israel entered the Promised Land. There, as well, they provoked Hashem by following their hearts that led them astray. In response, God removed His presence from the Mishkan in Shilo. Due to the corruption of the priests and the ignorance of the populace, the Tabernacle was destroyed (see Samuel I 4), the Ark of the Covenant was taken in battle by the Philistines and the high priest, Eli, and his two sons died.

61He let His might go into captivity, His glory into the hands of the foe.

סאוַיִּתֵּן לַשְּׁבִי עֻזּוֹ וְתִפְאַרְתּוֹ בְיַד־צָר׃

62He gave His people over to the sword; He was enraged at His very own.

סבוַיַּסְגֵּר לַחֶרֶב עַמּוֹ וּבְנַחֲלָתוֹ הִתְעַבָּר׃

63Fire consumed their young men, and their maidens remained unwed.

סגבַּחוּרָיו אָכְלָה־אֵשׁ וּבְתוּלֹתָיו לֹא הוּלָּלוּ׃

64Their Kohanim fell by the sword, and their widows could not weep.

סדכֹּהֲנָיו בַּחֶרֶב נָפָלוּ וְאַלְמְנֹתָיו לֹא תִבְכֶּינָה׃

65Hashem awoke as from sleep, like a warrior shaking off wine.

סהוַיִּקַץ כְּיָשֵׁן אֲדֹנָי כְּגִבּוֹר מִתְרוֹנֵן מִיָּיִן׃

66He beat back His foes, dealing them lasting disgrace.

סווַיַּךְ־צָרָיו אָחוֹר חֶרְפַּת עוֹלָם נָתַן לָמוֹ׃

67He rejected the clan of Yosef; He did not choose the tribe of Efraim.

סזוַיִּמְאַס בְּאֹהֶל יוֹסֵף וּבְשֵׁבֶט אֶפְרַיִם לֹא בָחָר׃

68He did choose the tribe of Yehuda, Mount Tzion, which He loved.

סחוַיִּבְחַר אֶת־שֵׁבֶט יְהוּדָה אֶת־הַר צִיּוֹן אֲשֶׁר אָהֵב׃

69He built His Sanctuary like the heavens, like the earth that He established forever.

סטוַיִּבֶן כְּמוֹ־רָמִים מִקְדָּשׁוֹ כְּאֶרֶץ יְסָדָהּ לְעוֹלָם׃

70He chose David, His servant, and took him from the sheepfolds.

עוַיִּבְחַר בְּדָוִד עַבְדּוֹ וַיִּקָּחֵהוּ מִמִּכְלְאֹת צֹאן׃

71He brought him from minding the nursing ewes to tend His people Yaakov, Yisrael, His very own.

עאמֵאַחַר עָלוֹת הֱבִיאוֹ לִרְעוֹת בְּיַעֲקֹב עַמּוֹ וּבְיִשְׂרָאֵל נַחֲלָתוֹ׃

72He tended them with blameless heart; with skillful hands he led them.

עבוַיִּרְעֵם כְּתֹם לְבָבוֹ וּבִתְבוּנוֹת כַּפָּיו יַנְחֵם׃