Psalms

Psalms

with commentary by Rabbi Avi Baumol

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Introduction

Sefer Tehillim, the book of Psalms, is first and foremost a shining example of biblical poetry. This genre conveys the word of God in a different medium than narrative; it focuses not on what one reads or hears but rather on what one feels and intuits. The Bible integrates poetry throughout its 24 books, reminding the reader of the infinite nature of Hashem and the multivalent dimensions of His word. The addition of poetry to the biblical landscape teaches the reader to gauge the cadence, rhythm, rhyme and meter in the divine expressions. If modern poets taught that form complements content, they predicated their sentiments on ancient biblical sources.

 

Moshe himself refers to the Torah as poetry: Therefore, write down this poem, and teach it to the people of Israelʺ (Deuteronomy 31:19). Based on this declaration, it seems that the receiver of Torah must not only “learn” the divine words, but also “sing” the heavenly song.

 

Jewish tradition says that the entire Torah, the five books of Moshe, contains the actual word of God, while the Nevi’im, prophetic works, consist of the prophets’ own formulations as well as direct quotations from Hashem Himself. The Ketuvim, the Writings, though, present us with a third dimension in Godly revelation: That of humans speaking with divine inspiration.

 

It is this third category into which Sefer Tehillim falls. Written, according to the Talmud (Bava Batra 14b), by King David and ten elders, each poem exposes the raw emotion of the Israelites attempting to feel God’s presence, while at the same time contending with external and internal foes. The medium of poetry, with its wordplays and metaphors, acrostics and flowery language, offers a universal subjective aspect to the written word. Each generation finds inspiration, spirit and solace in David’s song. Each psalm, according to tradition, while authored by human beings, nevertheless possesses a divine spark, a spiritual note.

 

While the Talmud refers to additional ‘elder’ authors, general Jewish tradition views the Tehillim as the work of King David. He authored the overwhelming majority. He is described in the Bible as “one who fashioned psalms” (II Chronicles 29:25,30), he was “skilled at playing the lyre” (I Samuel 16:16), and through his poems we find an entire system of worshiping God in the Temple as well as throughout Israel.

 

Where did David find the tools to craft this profound, yet eclectic, book of praise to God? The answer is that the poets’ quiver is filled with his sights, senses and experiences. And specifically in Eretz Yisrael, where almost all of the Psalms were penned, the flora, fauna, rivers, mountains, cities, caves, kings and nations were his muse.

 

In Sefer Tehillim, God, the nation of Israel and the land of Israel are inextricably linked. When David speaks of the Judean desert, we know to which he refers; when David runs to the mountains, we can access that geographical context and be doubly enriched. Thus, every psalm is also somewhat of a history lesson, teaching of the children of Israel and their deep relationship with the land of Israel, the God of Israel, with their enemies and with each other.

 

The Israel Bible” presents you the chapters of Sefer Tehillim and their connection to Eretz Yisrael, perhaps the most authentic context in which to view these precious words. Your task is to be attuned to the magic of Israel, God’s chosen land, and to peruse each chapter in Hebrew or in English, with an eye to the poetry, history, spirit and divine spark. Then, as with every other book of the Bible, you are challenged to apply these eternal messages to your own life.

Chapters and Commentary

Rabbi Avi Baumol

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About Rabbi Avi Baumol

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Rabbi Avi Baumol, a pulpit Rabbi and Jewish educator, is currently serving the Jewish community of Krakow, Poland. He earned a B.A. from Yeshiva University and an M.A. in Jewish History from the Bernard Revel Graduate School. Rabbi Baumol is an alumnus of Yeshivat Har Etzion and received Rabbinic Ordination from Yeshiva University. He is the author of “The Poetry of Prayer; Tehillim in Tefillah,” Gefen Publishing, Jerusalem 2009.

Email: [email protected]

Courses:
Psalms/Tehillim
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Comment ( 1 )

The comments below do not necessarily reflect the beliefs and opinions of The Israel Bible™.

  • I read your Psalm 120 and notice you referred to Psalm 126 verse 1

    "When Zion was at last restored.
    Brought out of bondage by the Lord.
    It seemed a dream to us and we,
    All laughed and shouted joyfully.
    Then it was said among the nations
    "To them, The Lord gave restoration,
    The Lord has done great things for us
    With Joy and thanks His Name we bless. Psalm 126 sett music.

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