with commentary by Ahuva Balofsky


The name of this book of wisdom, Mishlei, is translated to English as ‘Proverbs’, but that is perhaps too limited a designation. The Hebrew word mashal, from which the name Mishlei is derived, is more akin to an extended metaphor than a pithy saying.


Sefer Mishlei contains the collected wisdom of Shlomo, the wisest king to sit on the throne in Jerusalem. In Melachim I 3:5-14, the Bible relates how this son of King David achieved such greatness. Hashem appeared to Shlomo in a dream and offered him whatever his heart desired. Young King Shlomo asked only for the wisdom to guide God’s people in righteousness. So pleased was the Lord with Shlomo’s request that He granted Shlomo’s wish and in addition, also him great wealth and success.


Sefer Mishlei refers to the fear of Hashem as “the beginning of wisdom” (1:7), noting that recognition of His hand in the world is the source of all understanding. It admonishes the wise to seek out similar companions and to avoid the fool and the temptress, promising reward for the hard-working and dedicated, and suffering for the lazy and the wicked.


On the surface, the lessons of Sefer Mishlei seem straightforward, but in his own introduction to the book, King Shlomo promises that great secrets lie behind his words. The metaphors in the text can be understood both literally and figuratively, and can be projected onto a number of different situations.


Throughout the text, wisdom is personified as a righteous woman, while temptation is represented by the harlot. King Shlomo tells the reader that Hashem founded creation itself on wisdom, making order out of the chaos. That wisdom has been understood to be God’s Torah, and following its precepts will earn the faithful His reward.


Later chapters of Sefer Mishlei cite Agur son of Yakeh and King Lemuel as sources for the parables contained within. Jewish tradition considers both to be monikers for King Shlomo, as Agur means “compiler” and Lemuel means “for God”.


The final chapter of the book, chapter 31, includes the beautiful passage entitled “A Woman of Valor.” This poem, like everything else in Sefer Mishlei, can be understood literally, as a description of the ideal woman. However, in Jewish tradition it has been explained as a reference to the matriarch Sara, the Torah or even the Shabbat. In fact, it is customary in many Jewish homes to sing this poem on Friday night around the Shabbat Table, while welcoming the Sabbath Queen.  According to Metzudat DavidShlomo chose to end his book of wisdom with a praise of the woman of valor as a tribute to his mother, Batsheva, from whom who learned much of the wisdom contained within.

Ahuva Balofsky

About Ahuva Balofsky

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Ahuva Balofsky grew up in Toronto, Canada and obtained her B.A. Hons. and B.Ed. at York University. She taught Bible, Rabbinics and English at the Community Hebrew Academy of Toronto. After moving to Israel in 2004 with her family, she completed a Master's degree in Bible at Bar Ilan University. She currently teaches English and writes for and Israel365.


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Comments ( 6 )

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  • Manuela Granado

    My husband and I have been reading the book of proverbs for 3 years now and we are just now starting to understand some of the verses. I wonder why God attributes wisdom to a woman? Why not man?

    • Troy Sartain

      Being all God knows the greatest attributes of both. I my experience women who search earnestly for God are more wise and in his rest than men.

  • Amit Kumar

    Really i feel happy to read this version. i want to know more. thank you

  • DE Juda Aguirre

    muchas gracias por estudiar la palabra en el original
    es una riquesa que no se compara con nada por igual

  • Albert Nygren

    It has been very helpful to me that books such as Proverbs that are written in poetic verse can be more easily understood because ancient Israel had only one form of poetic verse which was "parallelism". This form was that one verse was followed by a 2nd verse that meant the same thing or almost the same thing but used different words. For example; the scripture in Proverbs that says, "Trust in the LORD with all your heart." is followed by, " and lean not on your own understanding" means obey all of G-d's commandments, even if they do not make sense to you. This is followed by, " In all your ways acknowledge Him and He will direct your paths. This means, again, in everything you do, obey G-d's Commandments, and He will lead you into all of the blessings that Hashem promises us.

    Thank you so much for granting me the the extreme blessing of the Israel Bible.

  • William Lipscomb

    Being able to hear the chapters in Hebrew is Great ans also relaxing for me

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