Lamentations 2

1Alas! Hashem in His wrath Has shamed Fair Tzion, Has cast down from heaven to earth The majesty of Yisrael. He did not remember His Footstool On His day of wrath.

ay-KHAH ya-EEV b'-a-PO a-do-NAI et bat tzi-YON hish-LEEKH mi-sha-MA-yim E-retz tif-E-ret yis-ra-AYL v'-LO za-KHAR ha-DOM rag-LAV b'-YOM a-PO

אאֵיכָה יָעִיב בְּאַפּוֹ אֲדֹנָי אֶת־בַּת־צִיּוֹן הִשְׁלִיךְ מִשָּׁמַיִם אֶרֶץ תִּפְאֶרֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל וְלֹא־זָכַר הֲדֹם־רַגְלָיו בְּיוֹם אַפּוֹ׃

2:1   He did not remember His Footstool on His day of wrath

To explain the metaphor of the “footstool” referred to in this verse, many commentaries point to other places in the Bible where the Beit Hamikdash is referred to as God’s footstool (see, e.g., Psalms 132:7). This image expresses the notion that while Hashem’s essence is incomprehensible to man, as He resides, as it were, in another realm, His presence can be felt in the Beit Hamikdash. There, we catch a glimpse of God’s metaphorical “feet.” Even in the absence of the Beit Hamikdash, the Bible tells us that God’s presence can be felt most closely in the Land of Israel, “a land which Hashem your God looks after, on which Hashem your God always keeps His eyes, from year’s beginning to year’s end.” (Deuteronomy 11:12).

2Hashem has laid waste without pity All the habitations of Yaakov; He has razed in His anger Fair Yehuda's strongholds. He has brought low in dishonor The kingdom and its leaders.

בבִּלַּע אֲדֹנָי לא [וְלֹא] חָמַל אֵת כָּל־נְאוֹת יַעֲקֹב הָרַס בְּעֶבְרָתוֹ מִבְצְרֵי בַת־יְהוּדָה הִגִּיעַ לָאָרֶץ חִלֵּל מַמְלָכָה וְשָׂרֶיהָ׃

3In blazing anger He has cut down All the might of Yisrael; He has withdrawn His right hand In the presence of the foe; He has ravaged Yaakov like flaming fire, Consuming on all sides.

גגָּדַע בָּחֳרִי אַף כֹּל קֶרֶן יִשְׂרָאֵל הֵשִׁיב אָחוֹר יְמִינוֹ מִפְּנֵי אוֹיֵב וַיִּבְעַר בְּיַעֲקֹב כְּאֵשׁ לֶהָבָה אָכְלָה סָבִיב׃

4He bent His bow like an enemy, Poised His right hand like a foe; He slew all who delighted the eye. He poured out His wrath like fire In the Tent of Fair Tzion.

דדָּרַךְ קַשְׁתּוֹ כְּאוֹיֵב נִצָּב יְמִינוֹ כְּצָר וַיַּהֲרֹג כֹּל מַחֲמַדֵּי־עָיִן בְּאֹהֶל בַּת־צִיּוֹן שָׁפַךְ כָּאֵשׁ חֲמָתוֹ׃

5Hashem has acted like a foe, He has laid waste Yisrael, Laid waste all her citadels, Destroyed her strongholds. He has increased within Fair Yehuda Mourning and moaning.

ההָיָה אֲדֹנָי כְּאוֹיֵב בִּלַּע יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּלַּע כָּל־אַרְמְנוֹתֶיהָ שִׁחֵת מִבְצָרָיו וַיֶּרֶב בְּבַת־יְהוּדָה תַּאֲנִיָּה וַאֲנִיָּה׃

6He has stripped His Booth like a garden, He has destroyed His Mishkan; Hashem has ended in Tzion Festival and Shabbat; In His raging anger He has spurned King and Kohen.

va-yakh-MOS ka-GAN su-KO shi-KHAYT mo-a-DO shi-KACH a-do-NAI b'-tzi-YON mo-AYD v'-sha-BAT va-yin-ATZ b'-ZA-am a-PO ME-lekh v'-kho-HAYN

ווַיַּחְמֹס כַּגַּן שֻׂכּוֹ שִׁחֵת מוֹעֲדוֹ שִׁכַּח יְהֹוָה בְּצִיּוֹן מוֹעֵד וְשַׁבָּת וַיִּנְאַץ בְּזַעַם־אַפּוֹ מֶלֶךְ וְכֹהֵן׃

 2:6   Hashem has ended in Tzion festival and Shabbat

Achad Ha’am (1856-1927)

The destruction of the Beit Hamikdash led to a drastic reduction of holiness in the world. This verse emphasizes the tragedy inherent in the elimination of the observance of Shabbat in the Beit Hamikdash due to the destruction. The famous Jewish author Achad Ha’am once remarked: “More than the Jews have kept the Sabbath, the Sabbath has kept the Jews.” Indeed, in many ways, the tranquility and spiritual rejuvenation which Shabbat offers have proven invaluable to the Jew’s ability to persevere in the face of so much oppression. Many of the Jewish people’s worst enemies were aware of the power of the Shabbat, and thus sought to eradicate it from Jewish life. For example, Antiochus Epiphanes, the villain of the Hanukkah story, prohibited Shabbat observance, as did many subsequent oppressors. Despite the myriad attempts to erase the Sabbath from Jewish consciousness, it has remained a central and defining feature of Jewish life until this very day.

7Hashem has rejected His mizbayach, Disdained His Sanctuary. He has handed over to the foe The walls of its citadels; They raised a shout in the House of Hashem As on a festival day.

זזָנַח אֲדֹנָי מִזְבְּחוֹ נִאֵר מִקְדָּשׁוֹ הִסְגִּיר בְּיַד־אוֹיֵב חוֹמֹת אַרְמְנוֹתֶיהָ קוֹל נָתְנוּ בְּבֵית־יְהֹוָה כְּיוֹם מוֹעֵד׃

8Hashem resolved to destroy The wall of Fair Tzion; He measured with a line, refrained not From bringing destruction. He has made wall and rampart to mourn, Together they languish.

חחָשַׁב יְהֹוָה לְהַשְׁחִית חוֹמַת בַּת־צִיּוֹן נָטָה קָו לֹא־הֵשִׁיב יָדוֹ מִבַּלֵּעַ וַיַּאֲבֶל־חֵל וְחוֹמָה יַחְדָּו אֻמְלָלוּ׃

9Her gates have sunk into the ground, He has smashed her bars to bits; Her king and her leaders are in exile, Instruction is no more; Her neviim, too, receive No vision from Hashem.

טטָבְעוּ בָאָרֶץ שְׁעָרֶיהָ אִבַּד וְשִׁבַּר בְּרִיחֶיהָ מַלְכָּהּ וְשָׂרֶיהָ בַגּוֹיִם אֵין תּוֹרָה גַּם־נְבִיאֶיהָ לֹא־מָצְאוּ חָזוֹן מֵיְהֹוָה׃

10Silent sit on the ground The elders of Fair Tzion; They have strewn dust on their heads And girded themselves with sackcloth; The maidens of Yerushalayim have bowed Their heads to the ground.

ייֵשְׁבוּ לָאָרֶץ יִדְּמוּ זִקְנֵי בַת־צִיּוֹן הֶעֱלוּ עָפָר עַל־רֹאשָׁם חָגְרוּ שַׂקִּים הוֹרִידוּ לָאָרֶץ רֹאשָׁן בְּתוּלֹת יְרוּשָׁלָ ִם׃

11My eyes are spent with tears, My heart is in tumult, My being melts away Over the ruin of my poor people, As babes and sucklings languish In the squares of the city.

יאכָּלוּ בַדְּמָעוֹת עֵינַי חֳמַרְמְרוּ מֵעַי נִשְׁפַּךְ לָאָרֶץ כְּבֵדִי עַל־שֶׁבֶר בַּת־עַמִּי בֵּעָטֵף עוֹלֵל וְיוֹנֵק בִּרְחֹבוֹת קִרְיָה׃

12They keep asking their mothers, “Where is bread and wine?” As they languish like battle-wounded In the squares of the town, As their life runs out In their mothers' bosoms.

יבלְאִמֹּתָם יֹאמְרוּ אַיֵּה דָּגָן וָיָיִן בְּהִתְעַטְּפָם כֶּחָלָל בִּרְחֹבוֹת עִיר בְּהִשְׁתַּפֵּךְ נַפְשָׁם אֶל־חֵיק אִמֹּתָם׃

13What can I take as witness or liken To you, O Fair Yerushalayim? What can I match with you to console you, O Fair Maiden Tzion? For your ruin is vast as the sea: Who can heal you?

יגמָה־אֲעִידֵךְ מָה אֲדַמֶּה־לָּךְ הַבַּת יְרוּשָׁלַ ִם מָה אַשְׁוֶה־לָּךְ וַאֲנַחֲמֵךְ בְּתוּלַת בַּת־צִיּוֹן כִּי־גָדוֹל כַּיָּם שִׁבְרֵךְ מִי יִרְפָּא־לָךְ׃

14Your seers prophesied to you Delusion and folly. They did not expose your iniquity So as to restore your fortunes, But prophesied to you oracles Of delusion and deception.

ידנְבִיאַיִךְ חָזוּ לָךְ שָׁוְא וְתָפֵל וְלֹא־גִלּוּ עַל־עֲוׂנֵךְ לְהָשִׁיב שביתך [שְׁבוּתֵךְ] וַיֶּחֱזוּ לָךְ מַשְׂאוֹת שָׁוְא וּמַדּוּחִים׃

15All who pass your way Clap their hands at you; They hiss and wag their head At Fair Yerushalayim: “Is this the city that was called Perfect in Beauty, Joy of All the Earth?”

sa-f'-KU a-LA-yikh ka-PA-yim kol O-v'-ray DE-rekh sha-r'-KU va-ya-NI-u ro-SHAM al BAT y'-ru-sha-LA-im ha-ZOT ha-EER she-yo-m'-RU k'-lee-LAT YO-fee ma-SOS l-khol ha-A-retz

טוסָפְקוּ עָלַיִךְ כַּפַּיִם כָּל־עֹבְרֵי דֶרֶךְ שָׁרְקוּ וַיָּנִעוּ רֹאשָׁם עַל־בַּת יְרוּשָׁלָ ִם הֲזֹאת הָעִיר שֶׁיֹּאמְרוּ כְּלִילַת יֹפִי מָשׂוֹשׂ לְכָל־הָאָרֶץ׃

 2:15  Is this the city that was called Perfect in Beauty, Joy of All the Earth?

Ramban (1194-1270)

This verse demonstrates the grandeur that once was Jerusalem. However, it is peculiar that in the hands of Babylon and of numerous subsequent conquerors, the city of Yerushalayim and the entire Land of Israel lay almost completely in ruins. In his notes on Sefer Vayikra (26:32), the Ramban explains that Eretz Yisrael has a supernatural quality to it. While under foreign occupation, the land is little more than a barren desert. However, when it is under the sovereignty of the People of Israel, the land comes to life, flourishes, and yields great produce. Indeed, for nearly two millennia, as the land switched hands numerous times between various foreign occupiers, including Romans, Arabs, Turks and others, the land lay desolate. Amazingly, the modern rebirth of the Jewish homeland has brought with it an astounding development of the land, to the point where once again the Jewish people can claim a flourishing country. In agriculture, technology, and culture, contemporary Israel ranks among the most advanced countries of the world. Indeed, Jerusalem itself has returned to a point where visitors once again remark that the city is “Perfect in Beauty, Joy of All the Earth.”

16All your enemies Jeer at you; They hiss and gnash their teeth, And cry: “We've ruined her! Ah, this is the day we hoped for; We have lived to see it!”

טזפָּצוּ עָלַיִךְ פִּיהֶם כָּל־אוֹיְבַיִךְ שָׁרְקוּ וַיַּחַרְקוּ־שֵׁן אָמְרוּ בִּלָּעְנוּ אַךְ זֶה הַיּוֹם שֶׁקִּוִּינֻהוּ מָצָאנוּ רָאִינוּ׃

17Hashem has done what He purposed, Has carried out the decree That He ordained long ago; He has torn down without pity. He has let the foe rejoice over you, Has exalted the might of your enemies.

יזעָשָׂה יְהֹוָה אֲשֶׁר זָמָם בִּצַּע אֶמְרָתוֹ אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה מִימֵי־קֶדֶם הָרַס וְלֹא חָמָל וַיְשַׂמַּח עָלַיִךְ אוֹיֵב הֵרִים קֶרֶן צָרָיִךְ׃

18Their heart cried out to Hashem. O wall of Fair Tzion, Shed tears like a torrent Day and night! Give yourself no respite, Your eyes no rest.

יחצָעַק לִבָּם אֶל־אֲדֹנָי חוֹמַת בַּת־צִיּוֹן הוֹרִידִי כַנַּחַל דִּמְעָה יוֹמָם וָלַיְלָה אַל־תִּתְּנִי פוּגַת לָךְ אַל־תִּדֹּם בַּת־עֵינֵךְ׃

19Arise, cry out in the night At the beginning of the watches, Pour out your heart like water In the presence of Hashem! Lift up your hands to Him For the life of your infants, Who faint for hunger At every street corner.

יטקוּמִי רֹנִּי בליל [בַלַּיְלָה] לְרֹאשׁ אַשְׁמֻרוֹת שִׁפְכִי כַמַּיִם לִבֵּךְ נֹכַח פְּנֵי אֲדֹנָי שְׂאִי אֵלָיו כַּפַּיִךְ עַל־נֶפֶשׁ עוֹלָלַיִךְ הָעֲטוּפִים בְּרָעָב בְּרֹאשׁ כָּל־חוּצוֹת׃

20See, Hashem, and behold, To whom You have done this! Alas, women eat their own fruit, Their new-born babes! Alas, Kohen and Navi are slain In the Sanctuary of Hashem!

כרְאֵה יְהֹוָה וְהַבִּיטָה לְמִי עוֹלַלְתָּ כֹּה אִם־תֹּאכַלְנָה נָשִׁים פִּרְיָם עֹלֲלֵי טִפֻּחִים אִם־יֵהָרֵג בְּמִקְדַּשׁ אֲדֹנָי כֹּהֵן וְנָבִיא׃

21Prostrate in the streets lie Both young and old. My maidens and youths Are fallen by the sword; You slew them on Your day of wrath, You slaughtered without pity.

כאשָׁכְבוּ לָאָרֶץ חוּצוֹת נַעַר וְזָקֵן בְּתוּלֹתַי וּבַחוּרַי נָפְלוּ בֶחָרֶב הָרַגְתָּ בְּיוֹם אַפֶּךָ טָבַחְתָּ לֹא חָמָלְתָּ׃

22You summoned, as on a festival, My neighbors from roundabout. On the day of the wrath of Hashem, None survived or escaped; Those whom I bore and reared My foe has consumed.

כבתִּקְרָא כְיוֹם מוֹעֵד מְגוּרַי מִסָּבִיב וְלֹא הָיָה בְּיוֹם אַף־יְהֹוָה פָּלִיט וְשָׂרִיד אֲשֶׁר־טִפַּחְתִּי וְרִבִּיתִי אֹיְבִי כִלָּם׃