TORAH
FIVE BOOKS OF MOSES
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II Samuel 8

1Some time afterward, David attacked the Philistines and subdued them; and David took Metheg-ammah from the Philistines.

אוַיְהִי אַחֲרֵי־כֵן וַיַּךְ דָּוִד אֶת־פְּלִשְׁתִּים וַיַּכְנִיעֵם וַיִּקַּח דָּוִד אֶת־מֶתֶג הָאַמָּה מִיַּד פְּלִשְׁתִּים׃

2He also defeated the Moabites. He made them lie down on the ground and he measured them off with a cord; he measured out two lengths of cord for those who were to be put to death, and one length for those to be spared. And the Moabites became tributary vassals of David.

בוַיַּךְ אֶת־מוֹאָב וַיְמַדְּדֵם בַּחֶבֶל הַשְׁכֵּב אוֹתָם אַרְצָה וַיְמַדֵּד שְׁנֵי־חֲבָלִים לְהָמִית וּמְלֹא הַחֶבֶל לְהַחֲיוֹת וַתְּהִי מוֹאָב לְדָוִד לַעֲבָדִים נֹשְׂאֵי מִנְחָה׃

3David defeated Hadadezer son of Rehob, king of Zobah, who was then on his way to restore his monument at the Euphrates River.

גוַיַּךְ דָּוִד אֶת־הֲדַדְעֶזֶר בֶּן־רְחֹב מֶלֶךְ צוֹבָה בְּלֶכְתּוֹ לְהָשִׁיב יָדוֹ בִּנְהַר־[פְּרָת׃]

4David captured 1,700 horsemen and 20,000 foot soldiers of his force; and David hamstrung all the chariot horses, except for 100 which he retained.

דוַיִּלְכֹּד דָּוִד מִמֶּנּוּ אֶלֶף וּשְׁבַע־מֵאוֹת פָּרָשִׁים וְעֶשְׂרִים אֶלֶף אִישׁ רַגְלִי וַיְעַקֵּר דָּוִד אֶת־כָּל־הָרֶכֶב וַיּוֹתֵר מִמֶּנּוּ מֵאָה רָכֶב׃

5And when the Arameans of Damascus came to the aid of King Hadadezer of Zobah, David struck down 22,000 of the Arameans.

הוַתָּבֹא אֲרַם דַּמֶּשֶׂק לַעְזֹר לַהֲדַדְעֶזֶר מֶלֶךְ צוֹבָה וַיַּךְ דָּוִד בַּאֲרָם עֶשְׂרִים־וּשְׁנַיִם אֶלֶף אִישׁ׃

6David stationed garrisons in Aram of Damascus, and the Arameans became tributary vassals of David. Hashem gave David victory wherever he went.

ווַיָּשֶׂם דָּוִד נְצִבִים בַּאֲרַם דַּמֶּשֶׂק וַתְּהִי אֲרָם לְדָוִד לַעֲבָדִים נוֹשְׂאֵי מִנְחָה וַיֹּשַׁע יְהֹוָה אֶת־דָּוִד בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר הָלָךְ׃

7David took the gold shields carried by Hadadezer's retinue and brought them to Yerushalayim;

זוַיִּקַּח דָּוִד אֵת שִׁלְטֵי הַזָּהָב אֲשֶׁר הָיוּ אֶל עַבְדֵי הֲדַדְעָזֶר וַיְבִיאֵם יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃

8and from Betah and Berothai, towns of Hadadezer, King David took a vast amount of copper.

חוּמִבֶּטַח וּמִבֵּרֹתַי עָרֵי הֲדַדְעָזֶר לָקַח הַמֶּלֶךְ דָּוִד נְחֹשֶׁת הַרְבֵּה מְאֹד׃

9When King Toi of Hamath heard that David had defeated the entire army of Hadadezer,

טוַיִּשְׁמַע תֹּעִי מֶלֶךְ חֲמָת כִּי הִכָּה דָוִד אֵת כָּל־חֵיל הֲדַדְעָזֶר׃

10Toi sent his son Joram to King David to greet him and to congratulate him on his military victory over Hadadezer—for Hadadezer had been at war with Toi. [Yoram] brought with him objects of silver, gold, and copper.

יוַיִּשְׁלַח תֹּעִי אֶת־יוֹרָם־בְּנוֹ אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ־דָּוִד לִשְׁאָל־לוֹ לְשָׁלוֹם וּלְבָרֲכוֹ עַל אֲשֶׁר נִלְחַם בַּהֲדַדְעֶזֶר וַיַּכֵּהוּ כִּי־אִישׁ מִלְחֲמוֹת תֹּעִי הָיָה הֲדַדְעָזֶר וּבְיָדוֹ הָיוּ כְּלֵי־כֶסֶף וּכְלֵי־זָהָב וּכְלֵי נְחֹשֶׁת׃

11King David dedicated these to Hashem, along with the other silver and gold that he dedicated, [taken] from all the nations he had conquered:

יאגַּם־אֹתָם הִקְדִּישׁ הַמֶּלֶךְ דָּוִד לַיהֹוָה עִם־הַכֶּסֶף וְהַזָּהָב אֲשֶׁר הִקְדִּישׁ מִכָּל־הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר כִּבֵּשׁ׃

12from Edom, Moab, and Ammon; from the Philistines and the Amalekites, and from the plunder of Hadadezer son of Rehob, king of Zobah.

יבמֵאֲרָם וּמִמּוֹאָב וּמִבְּנֵי עַמּוֹן וּמִפְּלִשְׁתִּים וּמֵעֲמָלֵק וּמִשְּׁלַל הֲדַדְעֶזֶר בֶּן־רְחֹב מֶלֶךְ צוֹבָה׃

13David gained fame when he returned from defeating Edom in the Valley of Salt, 18,000 in all.

יגוַיַּעַשׂ דָּוִד שֵׁם בְּשֻׁבוֹ מֵהַכּוֹתוֹ אֶת־אֲרָם בְּגֵיא־מֶלַח שְׁמוֹנָה עָשָׂר אָלֶף׃

14He stationed garrisons in Edom—he stationed garrisons in all of Edom—and all the Edomites became vassals of David. Hashem gave David victory wherever he went.

ידוַיָּשֶׂם בֶּאֱדוֹם נְצִבִים בְּכָל־אֱדוֹם שָׂם נְצִבִים וַיְהִי כָל־אֱדוֹם עֲבָדִים לְדָוִד וַיּוֹשַׁע יְהֹוָה אֶת־דָּוִד בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר הָלָךְ׃

15David reigned over all Yisrael, and David executed true justice among all his people.

va-yim-LOKH da-VID al kol yis-ra-AYL vai-HEE da-VID o-SEH mish-PAT utz-da-KAH l'-khol a-MO

טווַיִּמְלֹךְ דָּוִד עַל־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיְהִי דָוִד עֹשֶׂה מִשְׁפָּט וּצְדָקָה לְכָל־עַמּוֹ׃

 8:15   David executed true justice among all his people

King David was an ideal king, not only because of his military prowess, and not even because of the beautiful Psalms he wrote, but because he ruled the nation with “true justice among all his people.” The medieval commentator Ralbag, also known as Gersonides, notes that the emphasis on “true justice” indicates that King David does not rule only with pure justice, which always follows the “letter of the law.” He goes beyond that, practicing righteousness to make sure that everyone gets not only that to which they are legally entitled, but whatever they need. This commitment to the highest level of ethics epitomizes the righteous reign of King David in the eyes of God.

16Yoav son of Tzeruya was commander of the army; Yehoshafat son of Achilud was recorder;

טזוְיוֹאָב בֶּן־צְרוּיָה עַל־הַצָּבָא וִיהוֹשָׁפָט בֶּן־אֲחִילוּד מַזְכִּיר׃

17Tzadok son of Achituv and Achimelech son of Evyatar were Kohanim; Seraya was scribe;

יזוְצָדוֹק בֶּן־אֲחִיטוּב וַאֲחִימֶלֶךְ בֶּן־אֶבְיָתָר כֹּהֲנִים וּשְׂרָיָה סוֹפֵר׃

18Benaiah son of Yehoyada was commander of the Cherethites and the Pelethites; and David's sons were Kohanim.

יחוּבְנָיָהוּ בֶּן־יְהוֹיָדָע וְהַכְּרֵתִי וְהַפְּלֵתִי וּבְנֵי דָוִד כֹּהֲנִים הָיוּ׃