TORAH
FIVE BOOKS OF MOSES
NEVI'IM
PROPHETS
KETUVIM
WRITINGS

I Samuel 20

1David fled from Naioth in Rama; he came to Yehonatan and said, “What have I done, what is my crime and my guilt against your father, that he seeks my life?”

אוַיִּבְרַח דָּוִד מנוות [מִנָּיוֹת] בָּרָמָה וַיָּבֹא וַיֹּאמֶר לִפְנֵי יְהוֹנָתָן מֶה עָשִׂיתִי מֶה־עֲוׂנִי וּמֶה־חַטָּאתִי לִפְנֵי אָבִיךָ כִּי מְבַקֵּשׁ אֶת־נַפְשִׁי׃

2He replied, “Heaven forbid! You shall not die. My father does not do anything, great or small, without disclosing it to me; why should my father conceal this matter from me? It cannot be!”

בוַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ חָלִילָה לֹא תָמוּת הִנֵּה לו־עשה [לֹא־] [יַעֲשֶׂה] אָבִי דָּבָר גָּדוֹל אוֹ דָּבָר קָטֹן וְלֹא יִגְלֶה אֶת־אָזְנִי וּמַדּוּעַ יַסְתִּיר אָבִי מִמֶּנִּי אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה אֵין זֹאת׃

3David swore further, “Your father knows well that you are fond of me and has decided: Yehonatan must not learn of this or he will be grieved. But, as Hashem lives and as you live, there is only a step between me and death.”

גוַיִּשָּׁבַע עוֹד דָּוִד וַיֹּאמֶר יָדֹעַ יָדַע אָבִיךָ כִּי־מָצָאתִי חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ וַיֹּאמֶר אַל־יֵדַע־זֹאת יְהוֹנָתָן פֶּן־יֵעָצֵב וְאוּלָם חַי־יְהֹוָה וְחֵי נַפְשֶׁךָ כִּי כְפֶשַׂע בֵּינִי וּבֵין הַמָּוֶת׃

4Yehonatan said to David, “Whatever you want, I will do it for you.”

דוַיֹּאמֶר יְהוֹנָתָן אֶל־דָּוִד מַה־תֹּאמַר נַפְשְׁךָ וְאֶעֱשֶׂה־לָּךְ׃

5David said to Yehonatan, “Tomorrow is the new moon, and I am to sit with the king at the meal. Instead, let me go and I will hide in the countryside until the third evening.

הוַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל־יְהוֹנָתָן הִנֵּה־חֹדֶשׁ מָחָר וְאָנֹכִי יָשֹׁב־אֵשֵׁב עִם־הַמֶּלֶךְ לֶאֱכוֹל וְשִׁלַּחְתַּנִי וְנִסְתַּרְתִּי בַשָּׂדֶה עַד הָעֶרֶב הַשְּׁלִשִׁית׃

6If your father notes my absence, you say, ‘David asked my permission to run down to his home town, Beit Lechem, for the whole family has its annual sacrifice there.'

ואִם־פָּקֹד יִפְקְדֵנִי אָבִיךָ וְאָמַרְתָּ נִשְׁאֹל נִשְׁאַל מִמֶּנִּי דָוִד לָרוּץ בֵּית־לֶחֶם עִירוֹ כִּי זֶבַח הַיָּמִים שָׁם לְכָל־הַמִּשְׁפָּחָה׃

7If he says ‘Good,' your servant is safe; but if his anger flares up, know that he is resolved to do [me] harm.

זאִם־כֹּה יֹאמַר טוֹב שָׁלוֹם לְעַבְדֶּךָ וְאִם־חָרֹה יֶחֱרֶה לוֹ דַּע כִּי־כָלְתָה הָרָעָה מֵעִמּוֹ׃

8Deal faithfully with your servant, since you have taken your servant into a covenant of Hashem with you. And if I am guilty, kill me yourself, but don't make me go back to your father.”

חוְעָשִׂיתָ חֶסֶד עַל־עַבְדֶּךָ כִּי בִּבְרִית יְהֹוָה הֵבֵאתָ אֶת־עַבְדְּךָ עִמָּךְ וְאִם־יֶשׁ־בִּי עָוׂן הֲמִיתֵנִי אַתָּה וְעַד־אָבִיךָ לָמָּה־זֶּה תְבִיאֵנִי׃

9Yehonatan replied, “Don't talk like that! If I learn that my father has resolved to kill you, I will surely tell you about it.”

טוַיֹּאמֶר יְהוֹנָתָן חָלִילָה לָּךְ כִּי אִם־יָדֹעַ אֵדַע כִּי־כָלְתָה הָרָעָה מֵעִם אָבִי לָבוֹא עָלֶיךָ וְלֹא אֹתָהּ אַגִּיד לָךְ׃

10David said to Yehonatan, “Who will tell me if your father answers you harshly?”

יוַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל־יְהוֹנָתָן מִי יַגִּיד לִי אוֹ מַה־יַּעַנְךָ אָבִיךָ קָשָׁה׃

11Yehonatan said to David, “Let us go into the open”; and they both went out into the open.

יאוַיֹּאמֶר יְהוֹנָתָן אֶל־דָּוִד לְכָה וְנֵצֵא הַשָּׂדֶה וַיֵּצְאוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם הַשָּׂדֶה׃

12Then Yehonatan said to David, “By Hashem, the God of Yisrael! I will sound out my father at this time tomorrow, [or] on the third day; and if [his response] is favorable for David, I will send a message to you at once and disclose it to you.

יבוַיֹּאמֶר יְהוֹנָתָן אֶל־דָּוִד יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּי־אֶחְקֹר אֶת־אָבִי כָּעֵת מָחָר הַשְּׁלִשִׁית וְהִנֵּה־טוֹב אֶל־דָּוִד וְלֹא־אָז אֶשְׁלַח אֵלֶיךָ וְגָלִיתִי אֶת־אָזְנֶךָ׃

13But if my father intends to do you harm, may Hashem do thus to Yehonatan and more if I do [not] disclose it to you and send you off to escape unharmed. May Hashem be with you, as He used to be with my father.

יגכֹּה־יַעֲשֶׂה יְהֹוָה לִיהוֹנָתָן וְכֹה יֹסִיף כִּי־יֵיטִב אֶל־אָבִי אֶת־הָרָעָה עָלֶיךָ וְגָלִיתִי אֶת־אָזְנֶךָ וְשִׁלַּחְתִּיךָ וְהָלַכְתָּ לְשָׁלוֹם וִיהִי יְהֹוָה עִמָּךְ כַּאֲשֶׁר הָיָה עִם־אָבִי׃

14Nor shall you fail to show me Hashem's faithfulness, while I am alive; nor, when I am dead,

ידוְלֹא אִם־עוֹדֶנִּי חָי וְלֹא־תַעֲשֶׂה עִמָּדִי חֶסֶד יְהֹוָה וְלֹא אָמוּת׃

15shall you ever discontinue your faithfulness to my house—not even after Hashem has wiped out every one of David's enemies from the face of the earth.

טווְלֹא־תַכְרִת אֶת־חַסְדְּךָ מֵעִם בֵּיתִי עַד־עוֹלָם וְלֹא בְּהַכְרִת יְהֹוָה אֶת־אֹיְבֵי דָוִד אִישׁ מֵעַל פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה׃

16Thus has Yehonatan covenanted with the house of David; and may Hashem requite the enemies of David!”

טזוַיִּכְרֹת יְהוֹנָתָן עִם־בֵּית דָּוִד וּבִקֵּשׁ יְהֹוָה מִיַּד אֹיְבֵי דָוִד׃

17Yehonatan, out of his love for David, adjured him again, for he loved him as himself.

יזוַיּוֹסֶף יְהוֹנָתָן לְהַשְׁבִּיעַ אֶת־דָּוִד בְּאַהֲבָתוֹ אֹתוֹ כִּי־אַהֲבַת נַפְשׁוֹ אֲהֵבוֹ׃

18Yehonatan said to him, “Tomorrow will be the new moon; and you will be missed when your seat remains vacant.

va-yo-mer LO y'-ho-na-TAN ma-KHAR KHO-desh v'-NIF-kad-TA KEE yi-pa-KAYD mo-sha-VE-kha

יחוַיֹּאמֶר־לוֹ יְהוֹנָתָן מָחָר חֹדֶשׁ וְנִפְקַדְתָּ כִּי יִפָּקֵד מוֹשָׁבֶךָ׃

 20:18   Tomorrow will be the new moon

Full moon over the walls of Jerusalem

The Sages teach that the moon is a symbol of the People of Israel. Just as the moon waxes and wanes, appearing tiny when it is new but large by the middle of the month, the Children of Israel follow a similar cycle. Though at times they are a small and downtrodden nation, they will again become great in the eyes of all. In our era, with the establishment of the State of Israel, we are beginning to see the truth of this statement. When the world is ultimately blessed with the Mashiach, from the house of David, the light from the People of Israel will shine its brightest, originating in the Land of Israel and illuminating the entire world.

19So the day after tomorrow, go down all the way to the place where you hid the other time, and stay close to the Ezel stone.

יטוְשִׁלַּשְׁתָּ תֵּרֵד מְאֹד וּבָאתָ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר־נִסְתַּרְתָּ שָּׁם בְּיוֹם הַמַּעֲשֶׂה וְיָשַׁבְתָּ אֵצֶל הָאֶבֶן הָאָזֶל׃

20Now I will shoot three arrows to one side of it, as though I were shooting at a mark,

כוַאֲנִי שְׁלֹשֶׁת הַחִצִּים צִדָּה אוֹרֶה לְשַׁלַּח־לִי לְמַטָּרָה׃

21and I will order the boy to go and find the arrows. If I call to the boy, ‘Hey! the arrows are on this side of you,' be reassured and come, for you are safe and there is no danger—as Hashem lives!

כאוְהִנֵּה אֶשְׁלַח אֶת־הַנַּעַר לֵךְ מְצָא אֶת־הַחִצִּים אִם־אָמֹר אֹמַר לַנַּעַר הִנֵּה הַחִצִּים מִמְּךָ וָהֵנָּה קָחֶנּוּ וָבֹאָה כִּי־שָׁלוֹם לְךָ וְאֵין דָּבָר חַי־יְהֹוָה׃

22But if, instead, I call to the lad, ‘Hey! the arrows are beyond you,' then leave, for Hashem has sent you away.

כבוְאִם־כֹּה אֹמַר לָעֶלֶם הִנֵּה הַחִצִּים מִמְּךָ וָהָלְאָה לֵךְ כִּי שִׁלַּחֲךָ יְהֹוָה׃

23As for the promise we made to each other, may Hashem be [witness] between you and me forever.”

כגוְהַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְנוּ אֲנִי וָאָתָּה הִנֵּה יְהֹוָה בֵּינִי וּבֵינְךָ עַד־עוֹלָם׃

24David hid in the field. The new moon came, and the king sat down to partake of the meal.

כדוַיִּסָּתֵר דָּוִד בַּשָּׂדֶה וַיְהִי הַחֹדֶשׁ וַיֵּשֶׁב הַמֶּלֶךְ על־[אֶל־] הַלֶּחֶם לֶאֱכוֹל׃

25When the king took his usual place on the seat by the wall, Yehonatan rose and Avner sat down at Shaul's side; but David's place remained vacant.

כהוַיֵּשֶׁב הַמֶּלֶךְ עַל־מוֹשָׁבוֹ כְּפַעַם בְּפַעַם אֶל־מוֹשַׁב הַקִּיר וַיָּקָם יְהוֹנָתָן וַיֵּשֶׁב אַבְנֵר מִצַּד שָׁאוּל וַיִּפָּקֵד מְקוֹם דָּוִד׃

26That day, however, Shaul said nothing. “It's accidental,” he thought. “He must be unclean and not yet cleansed.”

כווְלֹא־דִבֶּר שָׁאוּל מְאוּמָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא כִּי אָמַר מִקְרֶה הוּא בִּלְתִּי טָהוֹר הוּא כִּי־לֹא טָהוֹר׃

27But on the day after the new moon, the second day, David's place was vacant again. So Shaul said to his son Yehonatan, “Why didn't the son of Yishai come to the meal yesterday or today?”

כזוַיְהִי מִמָּחֳרַת הַחֹדֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי וַיִּפָּקֵד מְקוֹם דָּוִד וַיֹּאמֶר שָׁאוּל אֶל־יְהוֹנָתָן בְּנוֹ מַדּוּעַ לֹא־בָא בֶן־יִשַׁי גַּם־תְּמוֹל גַּם־הַיּוֹם אֶל־הַלָּחֶם׃

28Yehonatan answered Shaul, “David begged leave of me to go to Beit Lechem.

כחוַיַּעַן יְהוֹנָתָן אֶת־שָׁאוּל נִשְׁאֹל נִשְׁאַל דָּוִד מֵעִמָּדִי עַד־בֵּית לָחֶם׃

29He said, ‘Please let me go, for we are going to have a family feast in our town and my brother has summoned me to it. Do me a favor, let me slip away to see my kinsmen.' That is why he has not come to the king's table.”

כטוַיֹּאמֶר שַׁלְּחֵנִי נָא כִּי זֶבַח מִשְׁפָּחָה לָנוּ בָּעִיר וְהוּא צִוָּה־לִי אָחִי וְעַתָּה אִם־מָצָאתִי חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ אִמָּלְטָה נָּא וְאֶרְאֶה אֶת־אֶחָי עַל־כֵּן לֹא־בָא אֶל־שֻׁלְחַן הַמֶּלֶךְ׃

30Shaul flew into a rage against Yehonatan. “You son of a perverse, rebellious woman!” he shouted. “I know that you side with the son of Yishai—to your shame, and to the shame of your mother's nakedness!

לוַיִּחַר־אַף שָׁאוּל בִּיהוֹנָתָן וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ בֶּן־נַעֲוַת הַמַּרְדּוּת הֲלוֹא יָדַעְתִּי כִּי־בֹחֵר אַתָּה לְבֶן־יִשַׁי לְבָשְׁתְּךָ וּלְבֹשֶׁת עֶרְוַת אִמֶּךָ׃

31For as long as the son of Yishai lives on earth, neither you nor your kingship will be secure. Now then, have him brought to me, for he is marked for death.”

לאכִּי כָל־הַיָּמִים אֲשֶׁר בֶּן־יִשַׁי חַי עַל־הָאֲדָמָה לֹא תִכּוֹן אַתָּה וּמַלְכוּתֶךָ וְעַתָּה שְׁלַח וְקַח אֹתוֹ אֵלַי כִּי בֶן־מָוֶת הוּא׃

32But Yehonatan spoke up and said to his father, “Why should he be put to death? What has he done?”

לבוַיַּעַן יְהוֹנָתָן אֶת־שָׁאוּל אָבִיו וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו לָמָּה יוּמַת מֶה עָשָׂה׃

33At that, Shaul threw his spear at him to strike him down; and Yehonatan realized that his father was determined to do away with David.

לגוַיָּטֶל שָׁאוּל אֶת־הַחֲנִית עָלָיו לְהַכֹּתוֹ וַיֵּדַע יְהוֹנָתָן כִּי־כָלָה הִיא מֵעִם אָבִיו לְהָמִית אֶת־דָּוִד׃

34Yehonatan rose from the table in a rage. He ate no food on the second day of the new moon, because he was grieved about David, and because his father had humiliated him.

לדוַיָּקָם יְהוֹנָתָן מֵעִם הַשֻּׁלְחָן בָּחֳרִי־אָף וְלֹא־אָכַל בְּיוֹם־הַחֹדֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי לֶחֶם כִּי נֶעְצַב אֶל־דָּוִד כִּי הִכְלִמוֹ אָבִיו׃

35In the morning, Yehonatan went out into the open for the meeting with David, accompanied by a young boy.

להוַיְהִי בַבֹּקֶר וַיֵּצֵא יְהוֹנָתָן הַשָּׂדֶה לְמוֹעֵד דָּוִד וְנַעַר קָטֹן עִמּוֹ׃

36He said to the boy, “Run ahead and find the arrows that I shoot.” And as the boy ran, he shot the arrows past him.

לווַיֹּאמֶר לְנַעֲרוֹ רֻץ מְצָא נָא אֶת־הַחִצִּים אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מוֹרֶה הַנַּעַר רָץ וְהוּא־יָרָה הַחֵצִי לְהַעֲבִרוֹ׃

37When the boy came to the place where the arrows shot by Yehonatan had fallen, Yehonatan called out to the boy, “Hey, the arrows are beyond you!”

לזוַיָּבֹא הַנַּעַר עַד־מְקוֹם הַחֵצִי אֲשֶׁר יָרָה יְהוֹנָתָן וַיִּקְרָא יְהוֹנָתָן אַחֲרֵי הַנַּעַר וַיֹּאמֶר הֲלוֹא הַחֵצִי מִמְּךָ וָהָלְאָה׃

38And Yehonatan called after the boy, “Quick, hurry up. Don't stop!” So Yehonatan's boy gathered the arrows and came back to his master.—

לחוַיִּקְרָא יְהוֹנָתָן אַחֲרֵי הַנַּעַר מְהֵרָה חוּשָׁה אַל־תַּעֲמֹד וַיְלַקֵּט נַעַר יְהוֹנָתָן אֶת־החצי [הַחִצִּים] וַיָּבֹא אֶל־אֲדֹנָיו׃

39The boy suspected nothing; only Yehonatan and David knew the arrangement.—

לטוְהַנַּעַר לֹא־יָדַע מְאוּמָה אַךְ יְהוֹנָתָן וְדָוִד יָדְעוּ אֶת־הַדָּבָר׃

40Yehonatan handed the gear to his boy and told him, “Take these back to the town.”

מוַיִּתֵּן יְהוֹנָתָן אֶת־כֵּלָיו אֶל־הַנַּעַר אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ לֵךְ הָבֵיא הָעִיר׃

41When the boy got there, David emerged from his concealment at the Negev. He flung himself face down on the ground and bowed low three times. They kissed each other and wept together; David wept the longer.

מאהַנַּעַר בָּא וְדָוִד קָם מֵאֵצֶל הַנֶּגֶב וַיִּפֹּל לְאַפָּיו אַרְצָה וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים וַיִּשְּׁקוּ אִישׁ אֶת־רֵעֵהוּ וַיִּבְכּוּ אִישׁ אֶת־רֵעֵהוּ עַד־דָּוִד הִגְדִּיל׃

42Yehonatan said to David, “Go in peace! For we two have sworn to each other in the name of Hashem: ‘May Hashem be [witness] between you and me, and between your offspring and mine, forever!'”

מבוַיֹּאמֶר יְהוֹנָתָן לְדָוִד לֵךְ לְשָׁלוֹם אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּעְנוּ שְׁנֵינוּ אֲנַחְנוּ בְּשֵׁם יְהֹוָה לֵאמֹר יְהֹוָה יִהְיֶה בֵּינִי וּבֵינֶךָ וּבֵין זַרְעִי וּבֵין זַרְעֲךָ עַד־עוֹלָם׃