I - Chapter 11

1All Yisrael gathered to David at Chevron and said, “We are your own flesh and blood.

אוַיִּקָּבְצוּ כָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל־דָּוִיד חֶבְרוֹנָה לֵאמֹר הִנֵּה עַצְמְךָ וּבְשָׂרְךָ אֲנָחְנוּ׃

2Long before now, even when Shaul was king, you were the leader of Yisrael; and Hashem your God said to you: You shall shepherd My people Yisrael; you shall be ruler of My people Yisrael.”

בגַּם־תְּמוֹל גַּם־שִׁלְשׁוֹם גַּם בִּהְיוֹת שָׁאוּל מֶלֶךְ אַתָּה הַמּוֹצִיא וְהַמֵּבִיא אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֹּאמֶר יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְךָ אַתָּה תִרְעֶה אֶת־עַמִּי אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאַתָּה תִּהְיֶה נָגִיד עַל עַמִּי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃

3All the elders of Yisrael came to the king at Chevron, and David made a pact with them in Chevron before Hashem. And they anointed David king over Yisrael, according to the word of Hashem through Shmuel.

גוַיָּבֹאוּ כָּל־זִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ חֶבְרוֹנָה וַיִּכְרֹת לָהֶם דָּוִיד בְּרִית בְּחֶבְרוֹן לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה וַיִּמְשְׁחוּ אֶת־דָּוִיד לְמֶלֶךְ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּדְבַר יְהֹוָה בְּיַד־שְׁמוּאֵל׃

4David and all Yisrael set out for Yerushalayim, that is Jebus, where the Jebusite inhabitants of the land lived.

va-YAY-lekh da-VEED v'-khol yis-ra-AYL y'-ru-sha-LA-yim hee y'-VUS v'-SHAM hai-vu-SEE yo-sh'-VAY ha-A-retz

דוַיֵּלֶךְ דָּוִיד וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל יְרוּשָׁלַ ִם הִיא יְבוּס וְשָׁם הַיְבוּסִי יֹשְׁבֵי הָאָרֶץ׃

 11:4   David and all Yisrael set out for Yerushalayim

This first action that the text informs us David took after becoming king was to capture Yerushalayim and establish it as his capital. However, this actually occurred several years into David’s reign, as he ruled in Chevron for seven years before moving to Yerushalayim (I Kings 2:11). Nonetheless, Divrei Hayamim does not record any of his accomplishments during those years. Conquering the Holy City from the idolatrous Jebusites and establishing his capital there was the most meaningful event of David’s reign until that point. By doing so, he began the process that would lead to the construction of the Beit Hamikdash and service of God in “the site that Hashem your God will choose amidst all your tribes as His habitation, to establish His name there” (Deuteronomy 12:5).

5David was told by the inhabitants of Jebus, “You will never get in here!” But David captured the stronghold of Tzion; it is now the City of David.

הוַיֹּאמְרוּ יֹשְׁבֵי יְבוּס לְדָוִיד לֹא תָבוֹא הֵנָּה וַיִּלְכֹּד דָּוִיד אֶת־מְצֻדַת צִיּוֹן הִיא עִיר דָּוִיד׃

6David said, “Whoever attacks the Jebusites first will be the chief officer”; Yoav son of Tzeruya attacked first, and became the chief.

ווַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִיד כָּל־מַכֵּה יְבוּסִי בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה יִהְיֶה לְרֹאשׁ וּלְשָׂר וַיַּעַל בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה יוֹאָב בֶּן־צְרוּיָה וַיְהִי לְרֹאשׁ׃

7David occupied the stronghold; therefore it was renamed the City of David.

זוַיֵּשֶׁב דָּוִיד בַּמְצָד עַל־כֵּן קָרְאוּ־לוֹ עִיר דָּוִיד׃

8David also fortified the surrounding area, from the Millo roundabout, and Yoav rebuilt the rest of the city.

חוַיִּבֶן הָעִיר מִסָּבִיב מִן־הַמִּלּוֹא וְעַד־הַסָּבִיב וְיוֹאָב יְחַיֶּה אֶת־שְׁאָר הָעִיר׃

9David kept growing stronger, for the lord of Hosts was with him.

טוַיֵּלֶךְ דָּוִיד הָלוֹךְ וְגָדוֹל וַיהֹוָה צְבָאוֹת עִמּוֹ׃

10And these were David's chief warriors who strongly supported him in his kingdom, together with all Yisrael, to make him king, according to the word of Hashem concerning Yisrael.

יוְאֵלֶּה רָאשֵׁי הַגִּבּוֹרִים אֲשֶׁר לְדָוִיד הַמִּתְחַזְּקִים עִמּוֹ בְמַלְכוּתוֹ עִם־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל לְהַמְלִיכוֹ כִּדְבַר יְהֹוָה עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃

11This is the list of David's warriors: Jashobeam son of Hachmoni, the chief officer; he wielded his spear against three hundred and slew them all on one occasion.

יאוְאֵלֶּה מִסְפַּר הַגִּבֹּרִים אֲשֶׁר לְדָוִיד יָשָׁבְעָם בֶּן־חַכְמוֹנִי רֹאשׁ השלושים [הַשָּׁלִישִׁים] הוּא־עוֹרֵר אֶת־חֲנִיתוֹ עַל־שְׁלֹשׁ־מֵאוֹת חָלָל בְּפַעַם אֶחָת׃

12Next to him was Elazar son of Dodo, the Ahohite; he was one of the three warriors.

יבוְאַחֲרָיו אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן־דּוֹדוֹ הָאֲחוֹחִי הוּא בִּשְׁלוֹשָׁה הַגִּבֹּרִים׃

13He was with David at Pas Dammim when the Philistines gathered there for battle. There was a plot of ground full of barley there; the troops had fled from the Philistines,

יגהוּא־הָיָה עִם־דָּוִיד בַּפַּס דַּמִּים וְהַפְּלִשְׁתִּים נֶאֱסְפוּ־שָׁם לַמִּלְחָמָה וַתְּהִי חֶלְקַת הַשָּׂדֶה מְלֵאָה שְׂעוֹרִים וְהָעָם נָסוּ מִפְּנֵי פְלִשְׁתִּים׃

14but they took their stand in the middle of the plot and defended it, and they routed the Philistines. Thus Hashem wrought a great victory.

ידוַיִּתְיַצְּבוּ בְתוֹךְ־הַחֶלְקָה וַיַּצִּילוּהָ וַיַּכּוּ אֶת־פְּלִשְׁתִּים וַיּוֹשַׁע יְהֹוָה תְּשׁוּעָה גְדוֹלָה׃

15Three of the thirty chiefs went down to the rock to David, at the cave of Adulam, while a force of Philistines was encamped in the Valley of Rephaim.

טווַיֵּרְדוּ שְׁלוֹשָׁה מִן־הַשְּׁלוֹשִׁים רֹאשׁ עַל־הַצֻּר אֶל־דָּוִיד אֶל־מְעָרַת עֲדֻלָּם וּמַחֲנֵה פְלִשְׁתִּים חֹנָה בְּעֵמֶק רְפָאִים׃

16David was then in the stronghold, and a Philistine garrison was then at Beit Lechem.

טזוְדָוִיד אָז בַּמְּצוּדָה וּנְצִיב פְּלִשְׁתִּים אָז בְּבֵית לָחֶם׃

17David felt a craving and said, “If only I could get a drink of water from the cistern which is by the gate of Beit Lechem!”

יזויתאו [וַיִּתְאָיו] דָּוִיד וַיֹּאמַר מִי יַשְׁקֵנִי מַיִם מִבּוֹר בֵּית־לֶחֶם אֲשֶׁר בַּשָּׁעַר׃

18So the three got through the Philistine camp, and drew water from the cistern which is by the gate of Beit Lechem, and they carried it back to David. But David would not drink it, and he poured it out as a libation to Hashem.

יחוַיִּבְקְעוּ הַשְּׁלֹשָׁה בְּמַחֲנֵה פְלִשְׁתִּים וַיִּשְׁאֲבוּ־מַיִם מִבּוֹר בֵּית־לֶחֶם אֲשֶׁר בַּשַּׁעַר וַיִּשְׂאוּ וַיָּבִאוּ אֶל־דָּוִיד וְלֹא־אָבָה דָוִיד לִשְׁתּוֹתָם וַיְנַסֵּךְ אֹתָם לַיהֹוָה׃

19For he said, “Hashem forbid that I should do this! Can I drink the blood of these men who risked their lives?”—for they had brought it at the risk of their lives, and he would not drink it. Such were the exploits of the three warriors.

יטוַיֹּאמֶר חָלִילָה לִּי מֵאֱלֹהַי מֵעֲשׂוֹת זֹאת הֲדַם הָאֲנָשִׁים הָאֵלֶּה אֶשְׁתֶּה בְנַפְשׁוֹתָם כִּי בְנַפְשׁוֹתָם הֱבִיאוּם וְלֹא אָבָה לִשְׁתּוֹתָם אֵלֶּה עָשׂוּ שְׁלֹשֶׁת הַגִּבּוֹרִים׃

20Abshai, the brother of Yoav, was head of another three. He once wielded his spear against three hundred and slew them. He won a name among the three;

כוְאַבְשַׁי אֲחִי־יוֹאָב הוּא הָיָה רֹאשׁ הַשְּׁלוֹשָׁה וְהוּא עוֹרֵר אֶת־חֲנִיתוֹ עַל־שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת חָלָל ולא־[וְלוֹ־] שֵׁם בַּשְּׁלוֹשָׁה׃

21among the three he was more highly regarded than the other two, and so he became their commander. However, he did not attain to the other three.

כאמִן־הַשְּׁלוֹשָׁה בַשְּׁנַיִם נִכְבָּד וַיְהִי לָהֶם לְשָׂר וְעַד־הַשְּׁלוֹשָׁה לֹא־בָא׃

22Benaiah son of Yehoyada from Kabzeel was a brave soldier who performed great deeds. He killed the two [sons] of Ariel of Moab. Once, on a snowy day, he went down into a pit and killed a lion.

כבבְּנָיָה בֶן־יְהוֹיָדָע בֶּן־אִישׁ־חַיִל רַב־פְּעָלִים מִן־קַבְצְאֵל הוּא הִכָּה אֵת שְׁנֵי אֲרִיאֵל מוֹאָב וְהוּא יָרַד וְהִכָּה אֶת־הָאֲרִי בְּתוֹךְ הַבּוֹר בְּיוֹם הַשָּׁלֶג׃

23He also killed an Egyptian, a giant of a man five amot tall. The Egyptian had a spear in his hand, like a weaver's beam, yet [Benaiah] went down against him with a club, wrenched the spear out of the Egyptian's hand, and killed him with his own spear.

כגוְהוּא־הִכָּה אֶת־הָאִישׁ הַמִּצְרִי אִישׁ מִדָּה חָמֵשׁ בָּאַמָּה וּבְיַד הַמִּצְרִי חֲנִית כִּמְנוֹר אֹרְגִים וַיֵּרֶד אֵלָיו בַּשָּׁבֶט וַיִּגְזֹל אֶת־הַחֲנִית מִיַּד הַמִּצְרִי וַיַּהַרְגֵהוּ בַּחֲנִיתוֹ׃

24Such were the exploits of Benaiah son of Yehoyada; and he won a name among the three warriors.

כדאֵלֶּה עָשָׂה בְּנָיָהוּ בֶּן־יְהוֹיָדָע וְלוֹ־שֵׁם בִּשְׁלוֹשָׁה הַגִּבֹּרִים׃

25He was highly regarded among the thirty, but he did not attain to the three. David put him in charge of his bodyguard.

כהמִן־הַשְּׁלוֹשִׁים הִנּוֹ נִכְבָּד הוּא וְאֶל־הַשְּׁלוֹשָׁה לֹא־בָא וַיְשִׂימֵהוּ דָוִיד עַל־מִשְׁמַעְתּוֹ׃

26The valiant warriors: Asael brother of Yoav, Elchanan son of Dodo from Beit Lechem,

כווְגִבּוֹרֵי הַחֲיָלִים עֲשָׂה־אֵל אֲחִי יוֹאָב אֶלְחָנָן בֶּן־דּוֹדוֹ מִבֵּית לָחֶם׃

27Shammoth the Harorite, Helez the Pelonite,

כזשַׁמּוֹת הַהֲרוֹרִי חֶלֶץ הַפְּלוֹנִי׃

28Ira son of Ikkesh from Tekoa, Abiezer of Anatot,

כחעִירָא בֶן־עִקֵּשׁ הַתְּקוֹעִי אֲבִיעֶזֶר הָעֲנְּתוֹתִי׃

29Sibbecai the Hushathite, Ilai the Ahohite,

כטסִבְּכַי הַחֻשָׁתִי עִילַי הָאֲחוֹחִי׃

30Mahrai the Netophathite, Heled son of Baanah the Netophathite,

למַהְרַי הַנְּטֹפָתִי חֵלֶד בֶּן־בַּעֲנָה הַנְּטוֹפָתִי׃

31Ittai son of Ribai from Giva of the Benjaminites, Benaiah of Pirathon,

לאאִיתַי בֶּן־רִיבַי מִגִּבְעַת בְּנֵי בִנְיָמִן בְּנָיָה הַפִּרְעָתֹנִי׃

32Hurai of Nahale-gaash, Abiel the Arbathite,

לבחוּרַי מִנַּחֲלֵי גָעַשׁ אֲבִיאֵל הָעַרְבָתִי׃

33Azmaveth the Bahrumite, Eliahba of Shaalbon,

לגעַזְמָוֶת הַבַּחֲרוּמִי אֶלְיַחְבָּא הַשַּׁעַלְבֹנִי׃

34the sons of Hashem the Gizonite, Yonatan son of Shageh the Hararite,

לדבְּנֵי הָשֵׁם הַגִּזוֹנִי יוֹנָתָן בֶּן־שָׁגֵה הַהֲרָרִי׃

35Ahiam son of Sacar the Hararite, Eliphal son of Ur,

להאֲחִיאָם בֶּן־שָׂכָר הַהֲרָרִי אֱלִיפַל בֶּן־אוּר׃

36Hepher the Mecherathite, Achiya the Pelonite,

לוחֵפֶר הַמְּכֵרָתִי אֲחִיָּה הַפְּלֹנִי׃

37Hezro the Carmelite, Naarai son of Ezbai,

לזחֶצְרוֹ הַכַּרְמְלִי נַעֲרַי בֶּן־אֶזְבָּי׃

38Yoel brother of Natan, Mibhar son of Hagri,

לחיוֹאֵל אֲחִי נָתָן מִבְחָר בֶּן־הַגְרִי׃

39Zelek the Ammonite, Naharai the Berothite—the arms-bearer of Yoav son of Tzeruya

לטצֶלֶק הָעַמּוֹנִי נַחְרַי הַבֵּרֹתִי נֹשֵׂא כְּלֵי יוֹאָב בֶּן־צְרוּיָה׃

40Ira the Ithrite, Gareb the Ithrite,

מעִירָא הַיִּתְרִי גָּרֵב הַיִּתְרִי׃

41Uriya the Hittite, Zabad son of Ahlai.

מאאוּרִיָּה הַחִתִּי זָבָד בֶּן־אַחְלָי׃

42Adina son of Shiza the Reubenite, a chief of the Reubenites, and thirty with him;

מבעֲדִינָא בֶן־שִׁיזָא הָראוּבֵנִי רֹאשׁ לָראוּבֵנִי וְעָלָיו שְׁלוֹשִׁים׃

43Hanan son of Maacah, and Joshaphat the Mithnite;

מגחָנָן בֶּן־מַעֲכָה וְיוֹשָׁפָט הַמִּתְנִי׃

44Uzziyahu the Ashterathite, Shama and Jeiel sons of Hotham the Aroerite;

מדעֻזִיָּא הָעֲשְׁתְּרָתִי שָׁמָע ויעואל [וִיעִיאֵל] בְּנֵי חוֹתָם הָעֲרֹעֵרִי׃

45Jedaiael son of Shimri, and Joha his brother, the Tizite;

מהיְדִיעֲאֵל בֶּן־שִׁמְרִי וְיֹחָא אָחִיו הַתִּיצִי׃

46Eliel the Mahavite, and Jeribai and Joshaviah sons of Elnaam, and Ithmah the Moabite;

מואֱלִיאֵל הַמַּחֲוִים וִירִיבַי וְיוֹשַׁוְיָה בְּנֵי אֶלְנָעַם וְיִתְמָה הַמּוֹאָבִי׃

47Eliel, Oved, and Jaassiel the Mezobaite.

מזאֱלִיאֵל וְעוֹבֵד וְיַעֲשִׂיאֵל הַמְּצֹבָיָה׃