Succot

Synonyms:
Succoth, סֻכֹּתָה
Succot (Wikipedia)
Sukkot
EtrogC.jpg
From left to right, lulav with Hadasim and Aravot, etrog carrier, and etrog used on Sukkot
Official nameHebrew: סוכות‎ or סֻכּוֹת
("Booths, Tabernacles")
Observed byJews, Hebrews, Israelites, Messianic Jews, Samaritans, Semitic Neopagans
TypeJewish
SignificanceOne of the three pilgrimage festivals
ObservancesDwelling in sukkah, taking the Four Species, hakafot and Hallel in Synagogue
Begins15th day of Tishrei
Ends21st day of Tishrei (22nd outside of Israel, overlapping with Shemini Atzeret)
Date15 Tishrei, 16 Tishrei, 1 Tishrei, 18 Tishrei, 19 Tishrei, 20 Tishrei, 21 Tishrei
2018 dateSunset, 23 September –
nightfall, 30 September
2019 dateSunset, 13 October –
nightfall, 20 October
2020 dateSunset, 2 October –
nightfall, 9 October
Related toShemini Atzeret, Simchat Torah

Sukkot (Hebrew: סוכות‎ or סֻכּוֹת, sukkōt), commonly translated as Festival of Tabernacles (traditional Ashkenazi spelling Sukkos/Succos) also known as Chag HaAsif (חג האסיף), the Festival of Ingathering, is a biblical Jewish holiday celebrated on the 15th day of the seventh month, Tishrei (varies from late September to late October). During the existence of the Jerusalem Temple, it was one of the Three Pilgrimage Festivals (Hebrew: שלוש רגלים‎, shalosh regalim) on which the Israelites were commanded to perform a pilgrimage to the Temple.

The names used in the Torah are Chag HaAsif, translated to "Festival of Ingathering" or "Harvest Festival", and Chag HaSukkot, translated to "Festival of Booths". This corresponds to the double significance of Sukkot. The one mentioned in the Book of Exodus is agricultural in nature—"Festival of Ingathering at the year's end" (Exodus 34:22)—and marks the end of the harvest time and thus of the agricultural year in the Land of Israel. The more elaborate religious significance from the Book of Leviticus is that of commemorating the Exodus and the dependence of the People of Israel on the will of God (Leviticus 23:42–43).

The holiday lasts seven days in Israel and eight in the diaspora. The first day (and second day in the diaspora) is a Shabbat-like holiday when work is forbidden. This is followed by intermediate days called Chol Hamoed, when certain work is permitted. The festival is closed with another Shabbat-like holiday called Shemini Atzeret (one day in Israel, two days in the diaspora, where the second day is called Simchat Torah). Shemini Atzeret coincides with the eighth day of Sukkot outside Israel.

The Hebrew word sukkōt is the plural of sukkah, "booth" or "tabernacle", which is a walled structure covered with s'chach (plant material, such as overgrowth or palm leaves). A sukkah is the name of the temporary dwelling in which farmers would live during harvesting, a fact connecting to the agricultural significance of the holiday stressed by the Book of Exodus. As stated in Leviticus, it is also intended as a reminiscence of the type of fragile dwellings in which the Israelites dwelt during their 40 years of travel in the desert after the Exodus from slavery in Egypt. Throughout the holiday, meals are eaten inside the sukkah and many people sleep there as well.

On each day of the holiday it is mandatory to perform a waving ceremony with the Four Species.

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