Nehemiah is the central figure of the Book of Nehemiah, which describes his work in rebuilding Jerusalem during the Second Temple period. He was governor of Persian Judea under Artaxerxes I of Persia (c. 5th century BC). The name is pronounced // or // in English. It is in Hebrew נְחֶמְיָה, Nehemya, "Yahweh comforts".
According to most scholars, Nehemiah was a real historical figure and the Nehemiah Memoir, a name given by scholars to certain portions of the book written in the first person, is historically reliable.