11 Thus said Hashem: For three transgressions of Edom, For four, I will not revoke it: Because he pursued his brother with the sword And repressed all pity, Because his anger raged unceasing And his fury stormed unchecked.
KOH a-MAR a-do-NAI al sh’-lo-SHAH pish-AY e-DOM v’-al ar-ba-AH LO a-shee-VE-nu al rod-FO va-KHE-rev a-KHEEV v’-shi-KHAYT ra-kha-MAV va-yit-ROF la-AD a-PO v’-ev-ra-TO sh’-ma-RAH NE-tzakh
יא כֹּה אָמַר יְהֹוָה עַל־שְׁלֹשָׁה פִּשְׁעֵי אֱדוֹם וְעַל־אַרְבָּעָה לֹא אֲשִׁיבֶנּוּ עַל־רָדְפוֹ בַחֶרֶב אָחִיו וְשִׁחֵת רַחֲמָיו וַיִּטְרֹף לָעַד אַפּוֹ וְעֶבְרָתוֹ שְׁמָרָה נֶצַח׃
1:11 Because his anger raged unceasing
Amos delivers a harsh prophecy against the southern nation of Edom. When the Land of Israel could no longer bear to have both Yaakov and Esau dwell there together, Esau chose to leave for Mount Seir, which became the territory of Edom (Genesis 36:6-8). The Edomites are traditionally thought to be descendants of Esau, and are held accountable for maintaining the fires of enmity and hatred towards Yaakov’s descendants. Their hatred for Yaakov’s descendants was so great, and lasted so long, that during Yehuda’s downfall at the hands of the Babylonians, the Edomites rejoiced and cheered, took spoils from the war and even helped the Babylonians capture Israelites who tried to escape (Obadiah 1:10-15). Their sin was even more heinous because Israel was proscribed from attacking them (Deuteronomy 2:4), and because they refused to abandon old hatreds. Once a prosperous area (I Samuel 14:47), the land of Edom is today a desolate desert, as promised in Yechezkel (35:9), “I will make you a desolation for all time; your towns shall never be inhabited, and you shall know that I am Hashem.”