I Kings 11
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1  King Shlomo loved many foreign women in addition to Pharaoh’s daughter—Moabite, Amonite, Edomite, Phoenician, and Hittite women,

v’-ha-ME-lekh sh’-lo-MOH a-HAV na-SHEEM nokh-ri-YOT ra-BOT v’-et bat par-OH mo-a-vee-YOT a-mo-nee-YOT a-do-mee-YOT tzay-d’-nee-YOT khi-tee-YOT

א  וְהַמֶּלֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹה אָהַב נָשִׁים נָכְרִיּוֹת רַבּוֹת וְאֶת־בַּת־פַּרְעֹה מוֹאֲבִיּוֹת עַמֳּנִיּוֹת אֲדֹמִיֹּת צֵדְנִיֹּת חִתִּיֹּת׃

11:1   King Shlomo loved many foreign women

It seems shocking that the wise and righteous King Shlomo loves and marries foreign women. Rambam notes that he certainly does not marry these women without them first converting to Judaism. Yet, they clearly do not convert with a full heart, as evidenced by their continuing idolatrous practices. How, then can King Shlomo make such a mistake? Rabbi Aviner suggests that Shlomo thought he could spread belief in Hashem throughout the world, and that in order to do that he would need to incorporate representatives of other nations into the people of Israel. Though he has noble intentions, he makes a mistake in not sufficiently protecting himself and the people of Israel from the dangers of foreign influence and idol worship.Comment

2  from the nations of which Hashem had said to the Israelites, “None of you shall join them and none of them shall join you, lest they turn your heart away to follow their gods.” Such Shlomo clung to and loved.

ב  מִן־הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר אָמַר־יְהוָה אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא־תָבֹאוּ בָהֶם וְהֵם לֹא־יָבֹאוּ בָכֶם אָכֵן יַטּוּ אֶת־לְבַבְכֶם אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהֵיהֶם בָּהֶם דָּבַק שְׁלֹמֹה לְאַהֲבָה׃

3  He had seven hundred royal wives and three hundred concubines; and his wives turned his heart away.

ג  וַיְהִי־לוֹ נָשִׁים שָׂרוֹת שְׁבַע מֵאוֹת וּפִלַגְשִׁים שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת וַיַּטּוּ נָשָׁיו אֶת־לִבּוֹ׃

4  In his old age, his wives turned away Shlomo’s heart after other gods, and he was not as wholeheartedly devoted to Hashem his God as his father David had been.

ד  וַיְהִי לְעֵת זִקְנַת שְׁלֹמֹה נָשָׁיו הִטּוּ אֶת־לְבָבוֹ אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וְלֹא־הָיָה לְבָבוֹ שָׁלֵם עִם־יְהוָה אֱלֹהָיו כִּלְבַב דָּוִיד אָבִיו׃

5  Shlomo followed Ashtoreth the goddess of the Phoenicians, and Milcom the abomination of the Amonites.

ה  וַיֵּלֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹה אַחֲרֵי עַשְׁתֹּרֶת אֱלֹהֵי צִדֹנִים וְאַחֲרֵי מִלְכֹּם שִׁקֻּץ עַמֹּנִים׃

6  Shlomo did what was displeasing to Hashem and did not remain loyal to Hashem like his father David.

ו  וַיַּעַשׂ שְׁלֹמֹה הָרַע בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה וְלֹא מִלֵּא אַחֲרֵי יְהוָה כְּדָוִד אָבִיו׃

7  At that time, Shlomo built a shrine for Chemosh the abomination of Moab on the hill near Yerushalayim, and one for Molech the abomination of the Amonites.

ז  אָז יִבְנֶה שְׁלֹמֹה בָּמָה לִכְמוֹשׁ שִׁקֻּץ מוֹאָב בָּהָר אֲשֶׁר עַל־פְּנֵי יְרוּשָׁלִָם וּלְמֹלֶךְ שִׁקֻּץ בְּנֵי עַמּוֹן׃

8  And he did the same for all his foreign wives who offered and sacrificed to their gods.

ח  וְכֵן עָשָׂה לְכָל־נָשָׁיו הַנָּכְרִיּוֹת מַקְטִירוֹת וּמְזַבְּחוֹת לֵאלֹהֵיהֶן׃

9  Hashem was angry with Shlomo, because his heart turned away from Hashem, the God of Yisrael, who had appeared to him twice

ט  וַיִּתְאַנַּף יְהוָה בִּשְׁלֹמֹה כִּי־נָטָה לְבָבוֹ מֵעִם יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הַנִּרְאָה אֵלָיו פַּעֲמָיִם׃

10  and had commanded him about this matter, not to follow other gods; he did not obey what Hashem had commanded.

י  וְצִוָּה אֵלָיו עַל־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה לְבִלְתִּי־לֶכֶת אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וְלֹא שָׁמַר אֵת אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה יְהוָה׃

11  And Hashem said to Shlomo, “Because you are guilty of this—you have not kept My covenant and the laws which I enjoined upon you—I will tear the kingdom away from you and give it to one of your servants.

יא  וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה לִשְׁלֹמֹה יַעַן אֲשֶׁר הָיְתָה־זֹּאת עִמָּךְ וְלֹא שָׁמַרְתָּ בְּרִיתִי וְחֻקֹּתַי אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִי עָלֶיךָ קָרֹעַ אֶקְרַע אֶת־הַמַּמְלָכָה מֵעָלֶיךָ וּנְתַתִּיהָ לְעַבְדֶּךָ׃

12  But, for the sake of your father David, I will not do it in your lifetime; I will tear it away from your son.

יב  אַךְ־בְּיָמֶיךָ לֹא אֶעֱשֶׂנָּה לְמַעַן דָּוִד אָבִיךָ מִיַּד בִּנְךָ אֶקְרָעֶנָּה׃

13  However, I will not tear away the whole kingdom; I will give your son one tribe, for the sake of My servant David and for the sake of Yerushalayim which I have chosen.”

יג  רַק אֶת־כָּל־הַמַּמְלָכָה לֹא אֶקְרָע שֵׁבֶט אֶחָד אֶתֵּן לִבְנֶךָ לְמַעַן דָּוִד עַבְדִּי וּלְמַעַן יְרוּשָׁלִַם אֲשֶׁר בָּחָרְתִּי׃

14  So Hashem raised up an adversary against Shlomo, the Edomite Hadad, who was of the royal family of Edom.

יד  וַיָּקֶם יְהוָה שָׂטָן לִשְׁלֹמֹה אֵת הֲדַד הָאֲדֹמִי מִזֶּרַע הַמֶּלֶךְ הוּא בֶּאֱדוֹם׃

15  When David was in Edom, Yoav the army commander went up to bury the slain, and he killed every male in Edom;

טו  וַיְהִי בִּהְיוֹת דָּוִד אֶת־אֱדוֹם בַּעֲלוֹת יוֹאָב שַׂר הַצָּבָא לְקַבֵּר אֶת־הַחֲלָלִים וַיַּךְ כָּל־זָכָר בֶּאֱדוֹם׃

16  for Yoav and all Yisrael stayed there for six months until he had killed off every male in Edom.

טז  כִּי שֵׁשֶׁת חֳדָשִׁים יָשַׁב־שָׁם יוֹאָב וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל עַד־הִכְרִית כָּל־זָכָר בֶּאֱדוֹם׃

17  But Hadad, together with some Edomite men, servants of his father, escaped and headed for Egypt; Hadad was then a young boy.

יז  וַיִּבְרַח אֲדַד הוּא וַאֲנָשִׁים אֲדֹמִיִּים מֵעַבְדֵי אָבִיו אִתּוֹ לָבוֹא מִצְרָיִם וַהֲדַד נַעַר קָטָן׃

18  Setting out from Midian, they came to Paran and took along with them men from Paran. Thus they came to Egypt, to Pharaoh king of Egypt, who gave him a house, assigned a food allowance to him, and granted him an estate.

יח  וַיָּקֻמוּ מִמִּדְיָן וַיָּבֹאוּ פָּארָן וַיִּקְחוּ אֲנָשִׁים עִמָּם מִפָּארָן וַיָּבֹאוּ מִצְרַיִם אֶל־פַּרְעֹה מֶלֶךְ־מִצְרַיִם וַיִּתֶּן־לוֹ בַיִת וְלֶחֶם אָמַר לוֹ וְאֶרֶץ נָתַן לוֹ׃

19  Pharaoh took a great liking to Hadad and gave him his sister-in-law, the sister of Queen Tahpenes, as wife.

יט  וַיִּמְצָא הֲדַד חֵן בְּעֵינֵי פַרְעֹה מְאֹד וַיִּתֶּן־לוֹ אִשָּׁה אֶת־אֲחוֹת אִשְׁתּוֹ אֲחוֹת תַּחְפְּנֵיס הַגְּבִירָה׃

20  The sister of Tahpenes bore him a son, Genubath. Tahpenes weaned him in Pharaoh’s palace, and Genubath remained in Pharaoh’s palace among the sons of Pharaoh.

כ  וַתֵּלֶד לוֹ אֲחוֹת תַּחְפְּנֵיס אֵת גְּנֻבַת בְּנוֹ וַתִּגְמְלֵהוּ תַחְפְּנֵס בְּתוֹךְ בֵּית פַּרְעֹה וַיְהִי גְנֻבַת בֵּית פַּרְעֹה בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי פַרְעֹה׃

21  When Hadad heard in Egypt that David had been laid to rest with his fathers and that Yoav the army commander was dead, Hadad said to Pharaoh, “Give me leave to go to my own country.”

כא  וַהֲדַד שָׁמַע בְּמִצְרַיִם כִּי־שָׁכַב דָּוִד עִם־אֲבֹתָיו וְכִי־מֵת יוֹאָב שַׂר־הַצָּבָא וַיֹּאמֶר הֲדַד אֶל־פַּרְעֹה שַׁלְּחֵנִי וְאֵלֵךְ אֶל־אַרְצִי׃

22  Pharaoh replied, “What do you lack with me, that you want to go to your own country?” But he said, “Nevertheless, give me leave to go.”

כב  וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ פַרְעֹה כִּי מָה־אַתָּה חָסֵר עִמִּי וְהִנְּךָ מְבַקֵּשׁ לָלֶכֶת אֶל־אַרְצֶךָ וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא כִּי שַׁלֵּחַ תְּשַׁלְּחֵנִי׃

23  Another adversary that Hashem raised up against Shlomo was Rezon son of Eliada, who had fled from his lord, King Hadadezer of Zobah,

כג  וַיָּקֶם אֱלֹהִים לוֹ שָׂטָן אֶת־רְזוֹן בֶּן־אֶלְיָדָע אֲשֶׁר בָּרַח מֵאֵת הֲדַדְעֶזֶר מֶלֶךְ־צוֹבָה אֲדֹנָיו׃

24  when David was slaughtering them. He gathered men about him and became captain over a troop; they went to Damascus and settled there, and they established a kingdom in Damascus.

כד  וַיִּקְבֹּץ עָלָיו אֲנָשִׁים וַיְהִי שַׂר־גְּדוּד בַּהֲרֹג דָּוִד אֹתָם וַיֵּלְכוּ דַמֶּשֶׂק וַיֵּשְׁבוּ בָהּ וַיִּמְלְכוּ בְּדַמָּשֶׂק׃

25  He was an adversary of Yisrael all the days of Shlomo, adding to the trouble [caused by] Hadad; he repudiated [the authority of] Yisrael and reigned over Aram.

כה  וַיְהִי שָׂטָן לְיִשְׂרָאֵל כָּל־יְמֵי שְׁלֹמֹה וְאֶת־הָרָעָה אֲשֶׁר הֲדָד וַיָּקָץ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּמְלֹךְ עַל־אֲרָם׃

26  Yerovam son of Nebat, an Efraimite of Zeredah, the son of a widow whose name was Zeruah, was in Shlomo’s service; he raised his hand against the king.

כו  וְיָרָבְעָם בֶּן־נְבָט אֶפְרָתִי מִן־הַצְּרֵדָה וְשֵׁם אִמּוֹ צְרוּעָה אִשָּׁה אַלְמָנָה עֶבֶד לִשְׁלֹמֹה וַיָּרֶם יָד בַּמֶּלֶךְ׃

27  The circumstances under which he raised his hand against the king were as follows: Shlomo built the Millo and repaired the breach of the city of his father, David.

כז  וְזֶה הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר־הֵרִים יָד בַּמֶּלֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹה בָּנָה אֶת־הַמִּלּוֹא סָגַר אֶת־פֶּרֶץ עִיר דָּוִד אָבִיו׃

28  This Yerovam was an able man, and when Shlomo saw that the young man was a capable worker, he appointed him over all the forced labor of the House of Yosef.

כח  וְהָאִישׁ יָרָבְעָם גִּבּוֹר חָיִל וַיַּרְא שְׁלֹמֹה אֶת־הַנַּעַר כִּי־עֹשֵׂה מְלָאכָה הוּא וַיַּפְקֵד אֹתוֹ לְכָל־סֵבֶל בֵּית יוֹסֵף׃

29  During that time Yerovam went out of Yerushalayim and the NaviAchiya of Shilo met him on the way. He had put on a new robe; and when the two were alone in the open country,

כט  וַיְהִי בָּעֵת הַהִיא וְיָרָבְעָם יָצָא מִירוּשָׁלִָם וַיִּמְצָא אֹתוֹ אֲחִיָּה הַשִּׁילֹנִי הַנָּבִיא בַּדֶּרֶךְ וְהוּא מִתְכַּסֶּה בְּשַׂלְמָה חֲדָשָׁה וּשְׁנֵיהֶם לְבַדָּם בַּשָּׂדֶה׃

30  Achiya took hold of the new robe he was wearing and tore it into twelve pieces.

ל  וַיִּתְפֹּשׂ אֲחִיָּה בַּשַּׂלְמָה הַחֲדָשָׁה אֲשֶׁר עָלָיו וַיִּקְרָעֶהָ שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר קְרָעִים׃

31  “Take ten pieces,” he said to Yerovam. “For thus said Hashem, the God of Yisrael: I am about to tear the kingdom out of Shlomo’s hands, and I will give you ten tribes.

לא  וַיֹּאמֶר לְיָרָבְעָם קַח־לְךָ עֲשָׂרָה קְרָעִים כִּי כֹה אָמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הִנְנִי קֹרֵעַ אֶת־הַמַּמְלָכָה מִיַּד שְׁלֹמֹה וְנָתַתִּי לְךָ אֵת עֲשָׂרָה הַשְּׁבָטִים׃

32  But one tribe shall remain his—for the sake of My servant David and for the sake of Yerushalayim, the city that I have chosen out of all the tribes of Yisrael.

לב  וְהַשֵּׁבֶט הָאֶחָד יִהְיֶה־לּוֹ לְמַעַן עַבְדִּי דָוִד וּלְמַעַן יְרוּשָׁלִַם הָעִיר אֲשֶׁר בָּחַרְתִּי בָהּ מִכֹּל שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃

33  For they have forsaken Me; they have worshiped Ashtoreth the goddess of the Phoenicians, Chemosh the god of Moab, and Milcom the god of the Amonites; they have not walked in My ways, or done what is pleasing to Me, or [kept] My laws and rules, as his father David did.

לג  יַעַן אֲשֶׁר עֲזָבוּנִי וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲווּ לְעַשְׁתֹּרֶת אֱלֹהֵי צִדֹנִין לִכְמוֹשׁ אֱלֹהֵי מוֹאָב וּלְמִלְכֹּם אֱלֹהֵי בְנֵי־עַמּוֹן וְלֹא־הָלְכוּ בִדְרָכַי לַעֲשׂוֹת הַיָּשָׁר בְּעֵינַי וְחֻקֹּתַי וּמִשְׁפָּטַי כְּדָוִד אָבִיו׃

34  However, I will not take the entire kingdom away from him, but will keep him as ruler as long as he lives for the sake of My servant David whom I chose, and who kept My commandments and My laws.

לד  וְלֹא־אֶקַּח אֶת־כָּל־הַמַּמְלָכָה מִיָּדוֹ כִּי נָשִׂיא אֲשִׁתֶנּוּ כֹּל יְמֵי חַיָּיו לְמַעַן דָּוִד עַבְדִּי אֲשֶׁר בָּחַרְתִּי אֹתוֹ אֲשֶׁר שָׁמַר מִצְוֺתַי וְחֻקֹּתָי׃

35  But I will take the kingship out of the hands of his son and give it to you—the ten tribes.

לה  וְלָקַחְתִּי הַמְּלוּכָה מִיַּד בְּנוֹ וּנְתַתִּיהָ לְּךָ אֵת עֲשֶׂרֶת הַשְּׁבָטִים׃

36  To his son I will give one tribe, so that there may be a lamp for My servant David forever before Me in Yerushalayim—the city where I have chosen to establish My name.

לו  וְלִבְנוֹ אֶתֵּן שֵׁבֶט־אֶחָד לְמַעַן הֱיוֹת־נִיר לְדָוִיד־עַבְדִּי כָּל־הַיָּמִים לְפָנַי בִּירוּשָׁלִַם הָעִיר אֲשֶׁר בָּחַרְתִּי לִי לָשׂוּם שְׁמִי שָׁם׃

37  But you have been chosen by Me; reign wherever you wish, and you shall be king over Yisrael.

לז  וְאֹתְךָ אֶקַּח וּמָלַכְתָּ בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־תְּאַוֶּה נַפְשֶׁךָ וְהָיִיתָ מֶּלֶךְ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃

38  If you heed all that I command you, and walk in My ways, and do what is right in My sight, keeping My laws and commandments as My servant David did, then I will be with you and I will build for you a lasting dynasty as I did for David. I hereby give Yisrael to you;

לח  וְהָיָה אִם־תִּשְׁמַע אֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר אֲצַוֶּךָ וְהָלַכְתָּ בִדְרָכַי וְעָשִׂיתָ הַיָּשָׁר בְּעֵינַי לִשְׁמוֹר חֻקּוֹתַי וּמִצְוֺתַי כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה דָּוִד עַבְדִּי וְהָיִיתִי עִמָּךְ וּבָנִיתִי לְךָ בַיִת־נֶאֱמָן כַּאֲשֶׁר בָּנִיתִי לְדָוִד וְנָתַתִּי לְךָ אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃

39  and I will chastise David’s descendants for that [sin], though not forever.”

לט  וַאעַנֶּה אֶת־זֶרַע דָּוִד לְמַעַן זֹאת אַךְ לֹא כָל־הַיָּמִים׃

40  Shlomo sought to put Yerovam to death, but Yerovam promptly fled to King Shishak of Egypt; and he remained in Egypt till the death of Shlomo.

מ  וַיְבַקֵּשׁ שְׁלֹמֹה לְהָמִית אֶת־יָרָבְעָם וַיָּקָם יָרָבְעָם וַיִּבְרַח מִצְרַיִם אֶל־שִׁישַׁק מֶלֶךְ־מִצְרַיִם וַיְהִי בְמִצְרַיִם עַד־מוֹת שְׁלֹמֹה׃

41  The other events of Shlomo’s reign, and all his actions and his wisdom, are recorded in the book of the Annals of Shlomo.

מא  וְיֶתֶר דִּבְרֵי שְׁלֹמֹה וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה וְחָכְמָתוֹ הֲלוֹא־הֵם כְּתֻבִים עַל־סֵפֶר דִּבְרֵי שְׁלֹמֹה׃

42  The length of Shlomo’s reign in Yerushalayim, over all Yisrael, was forty years.

מב  וְהַיָּמִים אֲשֶׁר מָלַךְ שְׁלֹמֹה בִירוּשָׁלִַם עַל־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה׃

43  Shlomo slept with his fathers and was buried in the city of his father David; and his son Rechovam succeeded him as king.

 

מג  וַיִּשְׁכַּב שְׁלֹמֹה עִם־אֲבֹתָיו וַיִּקָּבֵר בְּעִיר דָּוִד אָבִיו וַיִּמְלֹךְ רְחַבְעָם בְּנוֹ תַּחְתָּיו׃

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I Kings 10
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I Kings 11

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